The books frequently mention* the sixteen Mahājanapadas or countries, which existed in the time of the Buddha. They are Kāsī, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Mallā, Cetiya, Vamsā, Kuru, Pańcāla, Macchā, Sūrasena, Assaka, Avantī, Gandhāra and Kamboja.
The first fourteen are included in the Majjhimadesa, the two last being in Uttarāpatha.
* E.g., A.i.213; iv. 252, 256, 260; a list of twelve is found at D.ii.200, in which the last four are omitted. The Niddesa adds the Kalingas to the sixteen and substitutes Yona for the Gandhāra (CNid., p.37).
The Jaina Bhagavatī sutta gives a slightly different list: Anga, Banga, Magadha, Malaya, Mālava, Accha, Vaccha, Kocchaka, Pādha, Lādha, Bajji, Moli, Kāsi, Kosala, Avaha and Sambhuttara (PHAI. p.60).