CHAPTER VI - ANALYSIS OF MATTER
[The first Edition comprised 2 Volumes. The first Volume contained Chapter I to V and the second Volume Chapter VI to IX.]
The first five chapters of the Abhidhammattha Sangaha deal with the 89 and 121 types of consciousness, 52 mental states, various thought-processes in the course of one's lifetime and at rebirth, 31 planes of existence, and classification of Kamma. In one sense they form one complete book.
The remaining four chapters are devoted to rúpa (matter), Nibbána, paticca-samuppáda (the Law of Dependent Arising), patthána naya (Causal Relations), Categories of Good and Evil, Mental Culture, Path of Purity, and Great Attainments.
The sixth chapter is confined mainly to rúpa and Nibbána.
Twenty-eight species of Rúpa are enumerated. What they are, how they arise, persist, and perish, are also explained. Rúpa is the third paramattha mentioned in the Abhidhamma, and is one of the two composite factors of this so-called being - the other being náma (mind). As náma, so rúpa too has been microscopically analysed. But no logical definition of rúpa is found either in the Text or in the Commentaries.
Rúpa is derived from Ö rup, to break up, to perish (nása).
According to the Vibhávini Tíká, rúpa is that which transforms or assumes a different mode owing to the adverse physical conditions of cold heat, etc. (sítonhádi virodhippaccayehi vikáram ápajjati).
From a Buddhist standpoint rúpa not only changes but also perishes (khaya, vaya). It endures only for seventeen thought-moments. Rúpa changes so rapidly that one cannot strike an identical place twice.
Rúpa is also explained as that which manifests itself (Ö rup - pakásane).
Scholars suggest various renderings for rúpa. It is generally rendered by 'form', 'body', 'matter', 'corporeality', etc. meanings differ according to the context. One particular meaning is not universally applicable.
From a philosophical standpoint, 'matter' is the nearest equivalent for rúpa, although scientists too find it difficult to define matter.
It should be noted that the atomic theory prevailed in India in the time of the Buddha. Paramánu was the ancient term for the modern atom. According to the ancient belief one ratharenu consists of 36 tajjáris; one tajjári, 36 anus; one anu, 36 paramánus. The minute particles of dust seen dancing in the sunbeam are called ratharenus. One paramánu is therefore, 1/46, 656th part of a ratharenu. This paramánu was considered indivisible.
With His supernormal knowledge the Buddha analysed this so-called paramánu and declared that it consists of paramatthas - ultimate entities which cannot further be subdivided.
The paramatthas are pathavi, ápo, tejo, and váyo. One must not understand that these elements are earth, water, fire and air, as some Greek thinkers believed in the past.
Pathavi means the element of extension, the substratum of matter. Without it objects cannot occupy space. The qualities of hardness and softness which are purely relative are two conditions of this particular element. It may be stated that this element is present in earth, water, fire and air. For instance, the water above is supported by water below. It is this element of extension in conjunction with the element of motion, that produces the upward pressure. Heat or cold is the tejo element, while fluidity is the ápo element
Ápo is the element of cohesion. Unlike pathavi it is intangible. It is this element that makes scattered particles of matter cohere, and gives rise to the idea of 'body'. When solid bodies are melted, this element becomes more prominent in the resulting fluid. This element is found even in minute particles when solid bodies are reduced to powder. The elements of extension and cohesion are so closely interrelated that when cohesion ceases extension disappears.
Tejo is the element of heat. Cold is also a form of tejo. Both heat and cold are included in tejo because they possess the power of maturing bodies, Tejo, in other words, is the vitalizing energy. Preservation and decay are also due to this element. Unlike the other three essentials of matter, this element has the power to regenerate matter by itself.
Inseparably connected with heat is váyo, the element of motion. Movements are caused by this element. Motion is regarded as the force or the generator of heat. "Motion and heat in the material realm correspond respectively to consciousness and Kamma in the mental."
These four elements coexist and are inseparable, but one may preponderate over another as, for instance, pathavi in earth, ápo in water, tejo in fire, and váyo in air.
They are also called Mahábhútas, or Great Essentials because they are invariably found in all material substances ranging from the infinitesimally small cell to the most massive object.
Dependent on them are the four subsidiary material qualities of colour (vanna), smell (gandha), taste (rasa), and nutritive essence (ojá). These eight coexisting forces and qualities constitute one material group called 'suddhatthaka rúpa kalápa - pure-octad material group'.
The remaining twenty kinds of rúpa are equally important.
It should be noted that physical life-principle (rúpa jívitindriya) and sex are also conditioned by Kamma. Life in inorganic matter should be differentiated from life in animate beings.
The fact that rúpas arise in four ways such as Kamma, mind, seasonal phenomena, and food, will be a novel idea to modern thinkers. All these four sources can, to a great extent, be brought under one's control.
To some extent we are responsible for the creation of our own material phenomena, desirable or undesirable.
The accumulated Karmic tendencies created by persons in the course of their previous lives, play at times a greater role than the hereditary parental cells and genes, in the formation of physical characteristics.
The Buddha, for instance, inherited like every other person, the reproductive cells and genes from His parents. But physically there was none comparable to Him in His long line of honorable ancestors. In the Buddha's own words, He belonged not to the royal lineage, but to that of the Aryan Buddhas. He was certainly a superman, an extraordinary creation of His own Kamma.
According to the Lakkhana Sutta (D. 30) the Buddha inherited these exceptional features, such as the 32 major marks, as the result of his past meritorious deeds. The ethical reason for acquiring each physical feature is clearly explained in the Sutta.
In the sixth chapter only a few lines are devoted to the fourth paramattha - Nibbána - the summum bonum of Buddhism. But the path to Nibbána is described in detail in the ninth chapter.
The seventh chapter enumerates all ethical states and classifies them into various groups.
The two most profound philosophical teachings of Buddhism - namely, the Law of Dependent Arising (paticca-samuppáda) and the twenty-four Causal Relations (Patthána) are described in the eighth chapter.
The last chapter is the most important and the most interesting, as it deals with Mental Culture (bhávaná) and Emancipation, the quintessence of Buddhism.
To understand the intricacies of Abhidhamma one should critically read and reread the Abhidhammattha Sangaha patiently and carefully, pondering at the same time on the profound teachings embodied therein.
One who understands the Abhidhamma well can fully comprehend the Word of the Buddha and thereby realize one's ultimate goal.
§ 1. Ettávatá vibhattá hi sappabhedappavattiká
Cittacetasiká dhammá rúpandáni pavuccati
Samuddesá vibhágá ca samuttháná kalápato
Pavattikkamato c'áti pañcadhá tattha sangaho.
(1) Pathavídhátu, ápodhátu, tejodhátu, váyodhátu bhútarúpam náma.
(2) Cakkhu, sotam, ghánam, jivhá, káyo, pasádarúpam náma.
(4) Itthattam, purisattam bhávarúpam náma.
(5) Hadayavatthu hadayarúpam náma.
(6) Jívitindriyam jívitarúpam náma.
(7) Kabalíkáro áháro áhárarúpam náma.
(8) Ákásadhátu paricchedarúpam náma.
(9) Káyaviññatti vacíviññatti viññattirúpam náma.
(10) Rúpassa lahutá mudutá kammaññatá viññattidvayam vikárarúpam náma.
(11) Rúpassa upacayo santati jaratá aniccatá lakkhanarúpam náma.
Játirúpam eva pan' ettha upacayasantatinámena pavuccatí' ti ekádasavidhamp' etam rúpam atthavísativi dham hoti sarúpávasena.
Ayam' ettha rúpasamuddeso.
Analysis of Matter
§ 1. Having thus far described the consciousness and mental states in accordance with their classes (1) and processes (2), matter will now be dealt with.
With respect to enumeration (3), divisions (4), arising (5), groups (6), and the mode of happening (7), the compendium of matter therein is fivefold.
Enumeration of matter (samuddesa)
§ 2. Matter is twofold-namely, the four Great Essentials (8), and material qualities derived from them (9). These two constitute eleven species.
Thus these eighteen (22) kinds of material qualities are grouped:
Essentials, sensory organs, objects, sex, heart, vitality, and food thus (matter) is eighteen fold.
Limitation (space), intimation, change-ability, and characteristics - thus there are ten non-conditioned (by kamma ). In all there are twenty-eight.
Herein this is the enumeration of matter.
1. The first three chapters dealt with different types of consciousness and mental states, both concisely and descriptively.
2. The fourth chapter was confined to 7 thought-processes during lifetime, and the fifth chapter, to various planes and processes of rebirth consciousness.
3. Samuddesa - i.e., the brief exposition of rúpa.
4. Vibhága - i.e., the analysis of rúpa.
5. Samutthána - i.e., the arising of different constituents of rúpa such as eye-decad, etc., caused by Kamma, mind, seasonal phenomena, and food.
6. Kalápa - the group compositions of rúpa, such as body-decad, sex-decad. etc.
7. Pavattikkama - i.e., how rúpas take place in accordance with the states of existence, time, and classes of beings.
8. Mahábhútáni - lit ., those that have grown great. The four Great Essentials are the fundamental material elements which are inseparable. Every material substance, ranging from the minutest particle to the most massive object, consists of these four elements which possess specific characteristics.
9. Upádáya-rúpáni - Derivative or secondary material properties dependent on the Great Essentials. Like the earth are the Essentials; the Derivatives are like trees that spring therefrom. The remaining 24 rúpas are regarded as Derivatives.
10. Pathavi-dhátu - The Páli term dhátu means that which bears its own characteristic marks. Element is the closest equivalent for dhátu. Pathavi dhátu, literally, means the earth-element. It is so called because like the earth it serves as a support or foundation for the other coexisting rúpas. Pathavi (Sanskrit: prthivi), also spelt pathavi, puthavi, puthuvi, puthuvi - is derived from Ö puth, to expand, to extend. So far, though not very satisfactory, the closest equivalent for pathavi-dhátu is 'the element of extension'. Without it objects cannot occupy space. Both hardness and softness are characteristics of this element.
11. Ápo-dhátu - lit., the fluid element . Ápo is derived from Ö ap, to arrive, or from á + Ö páy, to grow, to increase. It is 'the element of cohesion . According to Buddhism it is this element that makes different particles of matter cohere, and thus prevents them from being scattered about. Both fluidity and contraction are the properties of this element. It should be understood that cold is not a characteristic of this element.
12. Tejo-dhátu - lit., the fire-element, is explained as 'the element of heat'. Tejo is derived from Ö tij, to sharpen, to mature. Vivacity and maturity are due to the presence of this element. Both heat and cold are the properties of tejo. Intense tejo is heat, and mild tejo is cold. It should not be understood that cold is the characteristic of ápo and heat is that of tejo; for, in that case, both heat and cold should be found together, as ápo and tejo coexist.
13. Váyo-dhátu - lit., 'the air-element', is explained as the element of motion. Váyo is derived from Ö vay, to move, to vibrate. Motion, vibration, oscillation, and pressure are caused by this element.
14. Pasáda-rúpa - They are the sensitive parts of the five organs - eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body. They tend to clarify the coexisting material qualities. The perceptible physical eye, for instance, is the sasambhára cakkhu or composite eye, which consists of the four bhúta-rúpas, four upádá-rúpas (colour, odour, taste, and sap), and jívitindriya (vitality). The sensitive part which lies at the center of the retina and which enables one to see objects is, the cakkhu pasáda. This is the basis of the eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññána) and becomes the instrument for the eye-door thought-process (cakkhu-dváravíthi). The desire to see tends to develop the sense of sight. The eye, therefore, consists of ten material qualities of which pasáda is one.
The other pasáda-rúpas should be similarly understood.
The pasáda-rúpas of ear, nose, and tongue are in their respective centers; the káya-pasáda-rúpa is diffused throughout the body except on hair, on the tips of nails, and in withered skin.
15. Gocararúpa - The sense-fields which serve as supports for the sense-cognitions to arise.
16. Rúpa - Both colour and shape are implied by this term.
17. Photthabba - owing to its subtlety, the element of cohesion (ápo) cannot be felt by the sense of touch. Only the other three Fundamental Elements are regarded as tangible. In water, for instance, the cold felt is tejo, the softness is pathavi, and the pressure is váyo. One cannot touch ápo as its property is cohesion.
See Compendium, p. 155, n. 6.
18. Itthattam purisattam - also termed itthindriyam, purisindriyam - are collectively called in the abbreviated form bháva-rúpa, the state by means of which masculinity and femininity are distinguished.
19. Hadayavatthu - The seat of consciousness. Dhammasangani omits this rúpa. In the Atthasálini hadayavatthu is explained as cittassa vatthu (basis of consciousness).
It is clear that the Buddha did not definitely assign a specific seat for consciousness, as He has done with the other senses. It was the cardiac theory (the view that heart is the seat of consciousness) that prevailed in His time, and this was evidently supported by the Upanishads. The Buddha could have accepted this popular theory, but He did not commit Himself. In the Patthána, the Book of Relations, the Buddha refers to the basis of consciousness in such indirect terms as "yam rúpam nissáya'' "depending on that material thing", without positively asserting whether that rúpa was either the heart (hadaya) or the brain. But, according to the views of commentators like Venerable Buddhaghosa and Anuruddha, the seat of consciousness is definitely the heart. It should be understood that the Buddha has neither accepted nor rejected this ancient popular cardiac theory.
See Compendium p. 156, n. 1, and p. 277.
20. Jívitindriya - There is vitality both in mind and in matter. Psychic life, which is one of the fifty-two mental states (cetasikás), and physical life, which is one of the twenty-eight rúpas, are essential characteristics of this so-called being. Psychic life is one of the seven universals and physical life is associated with almost every material group except in dead matter. Simultaneous with the arising of the rebirth-consciousness, physical life also springs up together with the initial material groups. Jívita is qualified by indriya because it has a dominating influence over other co-adjuncts in vivifying them.
21. Kabalíkáro áháro - so called because gross food is taken in by making into morsels. Here áhára means nutritive essence (ojá) which sustains the physical body. In the statement - sabbe sattá áháratthitiká, all beings live on food - áhára means a condition (paccaya).
22. Eighteen - 5+4 (tangibility excluded), 2+1+1+1 = 18.
23. Sabháva-rúpa - With respect to their own peculiar characteristics such as hardness, fluidity, etc.
24. Salakkhanarúpa - So called because they arise with the inherent general marks of impermanence (anicca), suffering (dukkha) and soullessness (anattá).
25. Nipphannarúpa - i.e., produced by Kamma mind, etc.
26. Rúparúpa - Here the first term rúpa is used in its etymological sense, i.e., change-ableness, as in the Páli phrase - dukkha-dukkha.
27. Sammasanarúpa - Because it enables one to employ them as objects fit for contemplation or insight.
28. Ákásadhátu - Ceylon Commentators derive ákása from á + Ö kas, to plough. Since there is no ploughing as on earth, space is called ákása. According to Sanskrit, ákása is derived from á + Ö kás, to view, to recognize. In Ledi Sayadaw's opinion it is derived from á + Ö kás, to shine, to appear. Ákása is space which in itself is nothingness. As such it is eternal. Ákása is a dhátu in the sense of a non-entity (nijjíva), not as an existing element like the four Essentials. By ákása, as one of the 28 rúpas, is meant not so much the outside space as the intra-atomic space that 'limits' or separates material groups (rúpakalápas). Hence in Abhidhamma it is regarded as a 'pariccheda-rúpa'. Although ákása is not an objective reality, as it is invariably associated with all material units that arise in four ways, Abhidhamma teaches that it, too, is produced by the same four causes such as Kamma, mind, seasonal changes. and food. Simultaneous with the arising and perishing of the conditioned rúpas, ákása rúpa also arises and perishes.
See Compendium p. 226.
29. Viññatti is that by means of which one communicates one's ideas to another and one understands another's intentions. It is done both by action and speech - káya-viññatti and vací-viññatti. The former is caused by the 'air-element' (váyo-dhátu) produced by mind (cittaja); the latter by the 'earth-element produced by the mind. The duration of viññatti is only one thought-moment.
30. Vikárarúpa - Change-ability of rúpa.
31. Lahutá denotes physical health, and is comparable to an iron rod heated throughout the day.
32. Mudutá is comparable to a well-beaten hide.
33. Kammaññatá is opposed to the stiffness of the body, and is comparable to well-hammered gold.
34. Lakkhanarúpa - So called because they assume distinguishable characteristics at different stages, such as arising (upáda), static (thiti) and dissolution (bhanga).
Upacaya means the first heaping-up or the first arising. Here 'upa' is used in the sense of first. The arising of the first three decads - káya, bháva, and vatthu - at the very moment of conception, is regarded as upacaya. The subsequent arising of the three decads from the static stage of rebirth-consciousness throughout lifetime is regarded as santati. Both upacaya and santati are sometimes treated as játi - birth. Then the number of rúpas amounts to 27 instead of 28.
The life term of conditioned rúpa is normally 17 thought-moments or 51 minor thought-instants (according to Commentators, during the time occupied by a flash of lightning, billions of thought-moments arise.)
The first thought-moment is like the upacaya, the last thought-moment is like the aniccatá, the intermediate 15 are like the jaratá. Aniccatá is the dissolution of rúpa.
Strictly speaking, there are only three lakkhanarúpas, viz: birth, growth-decay, and death. Aniccatá is synonymous with marana (death). The entire interval between birth and death constitutes development or decay.
With the exception of the five rúpas - namely, two viññattis, játi, jará, and aniccatá - all the remaining 23 rúpas last for 17 thought-moments.
Pasádasankhátam pañcavidham pi ajjhattikarúpam náma;
Pasádahadayasankhátam chabbidham pi vatthurúpam náma;
Pasádaviññattisankhátam sattavidham pi dvárarúpam náma;
Pasádabhávajívitasankhátam atthavidham pi indriyarúpam náma;
Pasádavisayasankhátam dvádasavidham pi olárikarúpam,
santike rúpam, sappatigharúpam ca; itaram sukhumarúpam,
dúre rúpam, appatigharúpam.
Kammajam upádinnarúpam; itaram anupádinnarúpam.
Rúpáyatanam sanidassanarúpam; itaram anidassanarúpam.
Cakkhádidvayam asampattavasena, ghánádittayam sampattavasená' ti pañcavidham pi gocaraggáhikarúpam; itaram agocaraggáhikarúpam.
Vanno, gandho, raso, ojá, bhútacatukkañc' áti atthavidham pi
avinibbhogarúpam; itaram vinibbhogarúpam.
Icc'evam atthavísati vidham pi ca vicakkhaná
Ajjhattikádibhedena vibhajanti yatháraham.
Ayam' ettha rúpavibhágo.
Classification of Matter
§ 3. Now all this matter divides itself into various categories as follows:
1. Rootless (35)
2. Causal (36)
3. With Defilements (37)
4. Conditioned (38)
5. Mundane (39)
6. Pertaining to the Káma-Sphere (40)
7. Objectless (41)
8. Not to be eradicated (42)
Matter is thus onefold. When conceived as personal, external, and so forth, matter becomes manifold.
The five kinds of sensitive material qualities are personal (43); the rest are external.
The six kinds, comprising the sensitives and the heart, are material qualities with basis (44); the rest are without a basis.
The seven kinds, comprising the sensitives and (the two) media of communication, are material qualities with a door (45); the rest are without doors.
The eight kinds, comprising the sensitives, sex-states, and vitality, are material qualities with a controlling faculty (46); the rest are without a controlling faculty.
The twelve kinds, comprising the sensitives and (seven) sense-objects (because "tangibility" comprises the three elements, excluding ápo), are gross (47), proximate, and impinging material qualities; the rest are subtle, distant, and non-impinging.
Material qualities born of Kamma are 'grasped at' (48); the others are 'not grasped at'.
Object of form is visible; the rest are invisible.
Eye and ear, as not reaching (the object), and nose, tongue and body, as reaching (the object), are five kinds of material phenomena that take objects (49); the others do not.
Colour, odour, taste, sap (50), and the four Essentials are the eight kinds (51) of material phenomena that are inseparable; the rest are separable.
Thus the wise analyze, accordingly, the 28 kinds with respect to 'personal' and so forth.
Herein this is the analysis of Matter.
35. Ahetukam - Because they are not associated with the roots lobha, dosa, etc.
36. Sappaccayam - Because they are related to the causes - Kamma. citta, utu, and áhára.
37. Sásavam - Since they serve as objects for Defilements.
38. Sankhatam - Because they are conditioned by the four causes - Kamma, citta, etc.
39. Lokiyam - Because they are connected with the world of the Five Aggregates of Attachment (pañcupádánakkhandhaloka). There is no supramundane rúpa.
40. Kámávacaram - Because they come within the range of sensual objects.
41. Anárammanam - As they themselves do not perceive objects. It is the mind that perceives objects through the senses. Rúpas serve as sense-objects.
42. Appahátábbam - Because there is no gradual eradication of matter like passions. 'Indestructibility' of matter is not implied by this term.
43. Ajjhattikam - Belonging to the so-called self. The five sensitive organs are essential for living beings. Without them they are inanimate logs. They serve as doors to the mind.
44. i.e., they serve as seats of consciousness.
45. They serve as doors to moral and immoral actions, mind and mental states, deeds and speech.
46. They are so called because they possess a controlling power in their respective spheres. The physical eye, for instance, is composed of ten material qualities; but it is the sensitive eye (cakkhupasádarúpa) that controls the remaining nine. The remaining pasádarúpas should be similarly understood. The state of sex controls masculinity and femininity. Like the captain of a ship it is vitality that controls rúpas.
47. Olárikam - Because of their importance both subjectively and objectively. They are regarded as santike (near) because of their receptivity. Owing to the grossness and nearness both sensitive organs and sense-objects mutually strike each other. Hence they are called sappatigha, lit., 'with striking against'.
See Compendium p. 159, n. 4.
48. Upádinnam - The first 18 kinds of rúpa born of Kamma are grasped by craving and false view.
49. Gocaraggáhikarúpam - They are so called because they take external objects as pasture. According to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha, sight and sound are regarded as objects that do not approach the eye and ear respectively as in the case of bodily contacts, etc. Both eye and ear cognize distant objects without any direct approach. In the case of other objects they directly contact the sense-organs. For instance, taste must directly touch the tongue. So are the other two objects. This may be the reason, irrespective of the wave theory, why the author distinguishes between senses that reach, and do not reach, the objects.
See Compendium, p. 160.
50. Ojá, as a rúpa in itself, has the power of producing other rúpas as well.
51. As a rule these eight rúpas are bound together. The four Essentials are inseparable and so are the four Derivatives. Hence they are also termed 'suddhatthaka' ('pure octad') and 'ojatthaka' ('with ojá as the eighth'). The growth of inanimate matter is also due to the presence of this universal ojá.
§ 4. Kammam, cittam, utu, áháro c'áti cattári rúpasamutthánáni náma.
Tattha kámávacaram rúpávacaram ca ti pañcavísatividham pi kusalákusalakammam abhisankhatam ajjhattika-santáne kammasamutthánarúpam patisandhim upádáya khane khane samutthápeti.
Arúpavipákadvipañcaviññánavajjitam pañcasattatividham picittam cittasamuttánarúpam pathamabhavangam upádáya jáyantam eva samutthápeti.
Tattha appanájavanam iriyápatham pi sannámeti.
Votthapanakámávacarajavanábhiññá pana viññattim pi samutthápenti.
Somanassa-javanáni pan' ettha terasa-hasanam pi janenti.
Sítunhotu-samaññátá tejo-dhátu-thitippattá'va utusamutthanarúpam ajjhattañ ca bahiddhá ca yatháraham samutthápeti.
Ojá-sankháto áháro áhárasamutthánarúpam ajjho-haranakále thánappatto' vá samutthápeti.
Tattha hadaya-indriyarúpani kammaján, eva viññattidvayam cittajam eva, saddo cittotujo,lahutádittayam utucittáhárehi sambhoti.
Avinibbhogarúpáni c' eva ákásadhátu ca catúhi sambhútáni. Lakkhanarúpani na kutoci jáyanti.
The Arising of Material Phenomena (52)
§ 4. Material phenomena arise in four ways, viz: 1. Kamma, 2. Mind, 3. Seasonal Conditions, and 4. Food.
1. Material Phenomena arising from Kamma (53)
Therein, the twenty-five types of moral and immoral Kamma, pertaining to the káma and rúpa Spheres, produce ,in one's own continuity, duly constituted material phenomena born of Kamma, at every moment, commencing from conception.
2. Material Phenomena arising from Mind (54)
The seventy-five types of consciousness, excluding the Formless Resultants and the twice fivefold cognitives, produce mind-born material phenomena, from the first moment of life-continuum just as it arises.
Therein the ecstatic javanas regulate the bodily postures. But the Determining Consciousness, javanas of the káma Sphere, and Super-knowledge Consciousness, produce also (bodily and vocal) media of communication. Herein the thirteen pleasurable javanas produce laughter too.
3. Material Phenomena arising from Seasonal Conditions (55)
The tejo-element, which comprises both cold and heat, on reaching its static stage, produces, according to circumstances, both internal and external material phenomena, resulting from seasonal conditions.
4. Material Phenomena arising from Food (56)
Food, known as nutritive essence, during assimilation on reaching its static stage, produces material phenomena resulting from food.
Therein the heart and the (eight) material Faculties are born of Kamma. The two media of communication are born only of mind. Sound is born of mind and seasonal conditions. The triple qualities of lightness and so forth arise from seasonal conditions, mind, and food. The inseparable material qualities and the element of space arise from four causes. Characteristic material qualities do not arise from any cause.
Eighteen, fifteen, thirteen, and twelve arise respectively from Kamma, mind, seasonal conditions, and food.
The characteristic marks of matter that arise and so forth are not produced by any cause, they say, since they are wholly intrinsic.
52. Rhúpasamutthana - Buddhism does not attempt to solve the problem of the ultimate origin of matter. It takes for granted that matter exists and states that rúpa develops in four ways.
53. Kammaja - Strictly speaking, by Kamma are meant past moral and immoral types of consciousness. It is only those classes of consciousness pertaining to the káma and rúpa-spheres that tend to produce rúpa. They are 12 types of immoral consciousness, 8 types of moral consciousness, and the 5 moral rúpa jhánas. A moral or immoral birth-reproductive Kamma generated at the dying moment of a person, conditions the rebirth-consciousness (patisandhi-citta) in a subsequent birth. Simultaneous with the arising of the rebirth-consciousness, rúpas conditioned by past Kamma spring up at every instant, like the flame of a lamp, up to the 17th thought-moment reckoned from the dying moment of the person.
At the very moment of conception there arise, as a result of the reproductive Karmic force, three dasakas or 'decads' - namely, the káya, bháva, and vatthu - body, sex, and base decads. The body decad is composed of the four elements, four derivatives, vitality and the káyapasáda. The sex-decad and the base-decad are similarly constituted.
54. Cittaja - Mind, the invisible but more powerful composite factor of the so-called being, has the potentiality to produce rúpa. In other words, good and bad thoughts produce desirable and undesirable material phenomena. This is apparent from the physical changes that result from thoughts generated by a person. According to Abhidhamma, it is from the arising moment of the first bhavanga, that is, immediately after the rebirth-consciousness, that material phenomena arising from mind spring up. The rebirth-consciousness does not produce mind-born rúpas, since Kamma does that function, and since it is a newcomer to the fresh existence. No mind-born rúpas arise at the static and perishing thought-moments, as they are weak. The ten sense-cognitives lack the potentiality to produce rúpa. The four arúpa vipáka jhánas do not produce rúpa, as they are developed through non-attachment to rúpa.
It is stated that jhána factors are essential to produce mind-born rúpa. One who possesses jhánas can therefore produce powerful rúpas which would enable him to live even without edible food. The mentally alert do not lack vitality. One who experiences Nibbánic bliss could live without any food for a considerable period. For instance, the Buddha fasted 49 days immediately after His Enlightenment.
Of the 75 types of consciousness, 26 javanas (10 rúpa kusala and kriyá, 8 arúpa kusala and kriyá and 8 lokuttaras) could produce abnormal bodily movements such as passing through the air, diving into the earth, walking on water, etc.
Here the Determining consciousness is the mind-door consciousness (manodvárávajjana). 29 káma-javanas are the 12 akusalas, 1 hasituppáda, and 16 sobhana kusala and kriyá; and abhiññá cittas are the two fifth jhána kusala and kriyá, accompanied by equanimity and connected with knowledge.
13 pleasurable javanas are the 4 akusalas and 8 sobhana kusalas and kriyás, accompanied by pleasure, and one hasituppáda.
Worldlings, when laughing or smiling, experience the four akusalas and four sobhanas; Sekhas, the same types of consciousness excluding the two akusalas accompanied by misbelief; Arahats, the four kriyás and one hasituppáda. The Buddhas smile only with the four sobhana kriyás.
55. Utuja - It was stated earlier that Kamma produces, at the moment of rebirth, three decads káya, bháva, and vatthu. The internal tejo element, found in these three groups, combined with the external tejo element, produces material phenomena caused by seasonal conditions at the static stage of the rebirth-consciousness. At the genetic stage Kamma-born tejo element takes the place of mind-born tejo element.
It is clear that the term utu has been used in the sense of tejo which constitutes both heat and cold. Strictly speaking, it is the internal and external tejo elements which produce rúpa. It should be understood that rúpas produced by climatic conditions are also included in the utuja class.
56. Áharaja - By Áhára are meant the nutritive essence present in physical food and the sap (ojá) contained in the material groups born of Kamma, mind, and seasonal conditions. The internal ojá, supported by the external nutritive essence, produces rúpa at the static stage which endures for 49 minor thought-instants. Rúpas arise when the ojá diffuses the body. Internal sap is alone incapable of producing rúpa without the aid of external nutritive essence.
Hadaya and 8 indriya rúpas (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, masculinity, feminity, and vitality) are wholly produced by Kamma. Thus jívitindriya or the life-principle present in animate beings such as men and animals should be differentiated from the inanimate life of plants and inorganic substances as they are not the inevitable results of Kamma.
They do possess a certain kind of life different from human beings and animals.
Ákása - It is interesting to note that this inter-atomic space is caused by all the four causes.
Sadda - Articulate sounds are caused by mind; inarticulate sounds are caused by utu. Musical notes caused by men are produced by utu, conditioned by mind.
Kammaja = 18. They are: 8 inseparables + 1 Space + 1 Heart + 8 Controlling faculties .
Cittaja = 15. They are: 5 Mutables + 1 Sound + 8 Inseparables + 1 Space.
Utuja = 13. They are: 1 Sound + Lightness, etc. 3 + 8 Inseparables + 1 Space.
Áháraja = 12. They are: Lightness, etc. 3 + 8 Inseparables + 1 Space . The four lakkhana rúpas are common to all as there is no rúpa devoid of the three instants birth, decay, and death.
§ 5. Ekuppádá ekanirodhá ekanissayá sahavuttino ekavísati rúpa-kalápá náma.
Suddhatthakam, lahutadekádasakañ cá'ti dve áhárasamutthána-kalápa.
Nava cha caturo dve'ti kalápá ekavísati.
Kalápánam paricchedalakkhanattá vicakkhaná
Na kalápangam iccáhu ákásam lakkhanáni ca.
Ayam' ettha kalápa-yojaná.
Grouping of Material Qualities (57)
§ 5. There are twenty-one material groups inasmuch as they arise together (or have a common genesis), cease together (or have a common cessation), have a common dependence, and coexist.
Therein vitality and the (eight) inseparable material qualities together with the eye are called the 'eye-decad'. Similarly the 'ear-decad' together with the ear and so forth, 'nose-decad', 'tongue-decad', 'body-decad', 'female-decad', 'male-decad', 'base-decad', should respectively be formed. Inseparably material qualities, together with vitality, are called the 'vital nonad'. These nine groups are produced by Kamma.
The inseparable material qualities constitute the 'pure octad'. They, together with the bodily intimation, constitute the 'bodily intimation nonad'; together with the vocal intimation and sound, the 'vocal intimation decad'; together with the material qualities of lightness, pliancy, and adaptability, the 'un-decad of lightness' and so forth; the dodecad of bodily intimation, lightness, pliancy, and adaptability; and the tridecad of vocal intimation, sound, lightness, pliancy, and adaptability.
These six material groups are produced by mind.
The pure octad, the sound-nonad, the un-decad of lightness, pliancy, and adaptability; the dodecad of sound, lightness, pliancy, and adaptability-these four are produced by seasonal phenomena.
The pure octad, and the un-decad of lightness, pliancy and adaptability are the two material qualities produced by food.
Of them the two material groups produced by seasonal phenomena - pure octad and the sound, nonad - are found externally too. All the rest are strictly internal.
There are twenty-one material groups - nine, six, four and two produced in due order from Kamma, mind, seasonal phenomena, and food.
As space demarcates, and characteristic marks just indicate, the wise state that they are not parts of material groups.
Herein this is the formation of material groups.
Icc' evam matasattánam punad'eva bhavantare
Patisandhim upádáya tathá rúpam pavattati.
Atthavisati kámesu honti tevísa rúpisu
Sattaras' ev' asaññínam arúpe natthi kiñci pi.
Saddo vikáro jaratá marañ c' opapattiyam
Na labbhanti pavatte tu na kiñci pi na labbhati.
Ayam' ettha rúpa-pavattikkamo.
Nibbánam iti bhásanti vánamuttá mahesayo.
Iti cittam cetasikám rúpam nibbánam iccapi
Paramattham pakásenti catudhá va tathágatá
Arising of Material Phenomena (58)
§ 6. All these material qualities are obtained, with no deficiency, according to circumstances, during lifetime in the káma-sphere. But at conception, to moisture-born beings and to those of spontaneous birth, there arise at most the seven decads - eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, sex and base. As a minimum sometimes, eye, ear, nose, and sex decads are not obtained. This is how deficiencies of material groups should be understood.
To the womb-born creatures there arise three decads - body, sex and base. Sometimes, however, the sex-decad is not obtained. From the conception and thereafter, during lifetime, gradually there arise eye-decads and so forth.
Thus the continuity of material groups produced in four ways - namely, Kamma-born from the time of conception, mind-born from the second moment of consciousness, season-born from the time of the static stage, food-born from the time of the diffusion of nutritive essence - uninterruptedly flows on in the káma-sphere till the end of life, like the flame of a lamp, or the stream of a river.
But at the time of death, from the seventeenth moment, reckoned backward from the decease-consciousness starting from the static stage of consciousness, kamma-born material phenomena no longer arise. Kamma-born material qualities that arose earlier exist till the decease-moment and then cease. Following that, the consciousness-born and nutriment-born material phenomena come to cessation. Thereafter a continuity of material qualities produced by physical changes persists while what is called a corpse lasts.
Thus to the dead persons, again in a subsequent life, material qualities similarly arise starting from the conception.
In the rúpa-plane decads of nose, tongue, body, sex and the material groups produced by food do not arise. Therefore to them at the time of rebirth there arise four material groups produced by Kamma, such as the three decads of eye, ear, and base, and the vital nonad. During life material qualities produced by mind and physical changes arise.
But to the mindless beings there do not arise eye, ear, base and sound. Similarly mind-born material qualities do not arise. Therefore at the moment of their rebirth only the vital nonad arises. During lifetime material qualities produced by physical changes, with the exception of sound, continue.
Thus in the three planes of káma, rúpa and asañña (Mindless) the procedure of material phenomena should be understood in two ways as regards rebirth and lifetime.
In the káma-sphere are obtained 28 material qualities, 23 in the rúpa-plane, 17 in the asañña-plane, but none in the arúpa-plane.
At the moment of birth, sound, mutation, decay and impermanence are not obtained. During lifetime there is nothing that is not obtained.
Herein this is the way how material qualities arise.
§ 7. Nibbána however is termed supramundane, and is to be realized by the wisdom of the Four Paths. It becomes an object to the Paths and Fruits, and is called Nibbána because it is a departure (ni) from cord-like, (vána) craving.
Nibbána is onefold according to its intrinsic nature.
According to the way (it is experienced) it is twofold - namely, the element of Nibbána with the substrata remaining, and the element of Nibbána without the substrata remaining.
It is threefold according to its different aspects, namely, Void (60), Signless (61), and Longing-free (62).
Great seers who are free from craving declare that Nibbána is an objective state (63) which is deathless, absolutely endless, non-conditioned (64), and incomparable.
Thus, as fourfold the Tathágatas reveal the Ultimate Entities-consciousness mental states, matter, and Nibbána.
In the Abhidhamma Compendium this is the sixth chapter, which deals with the analysis of matter.
57. Rúpas do not arise singly but collectively in groups. There are 21 such material groups.
As all mental states possess four common characteristics, so rúpas found in the aforesaid groups possess four salient characteristics. For instance, in the 'eye-decad' all the ten associated rúpas arise and cease together (ekuppáda-ekanirodha). The earth-element, which is one of the ten, acts as a basis for the remaining nine (ekanissaya). All these ten coexist (sahavutti). It should be understood that the earth-element of the 'eye-decad' does not serve as a basis for the associated rúpas of the 'ear-decad'. These four characteristics apply only to the associated rúpas of each particular group.
58. This section deals with the manner in which these material groups come into being and how they exist during lifetime, at the moment of conception, and in different states of birth.
According to Buddhism there are four kinds of birth - namely, egg-born beings (andaja), womb-born beings (jalábuja), moisture-born beings (samsedaja), and beings having spontaneous births (opapátika).
Embryos that take moisture as nidus for their growth, like certain lowly forms of animal life, belong to the third class.
Sometimes moisture-born beings lack certain senses and have no sex. They all must possess a consciousness as they are all endowed with the base-decad, that is, the seat of consciousness. Beings having a spontaneous birth are generally invisible to the physical eye. Conditioned by their past Kamma, they appear spontaneously, without passing through an embryonic stage. Petas and Devas normally, and Brahmas belong to this class.
Some of those who have spontaneous birth in the káma-sphere are asexual. But all beings who are Spontaneously born in the rúpa-sphere are not only asexual but are also devoid of sensitive nose, tongue, and body, though they possess those physical organs. The sensitive material qualities (pasádarúpas) of those particular organs are lost as they are not of any practical use to Brahmas.
Egg-born beings are also included among womb-born beings. At the moment of conception they all obtain the three decads of body, sex, and the seat of consciousness. At times some are devoid of both masculinity and femininity. From this it is seen that even eggs are constituted with a consciousness.
59. Nibbána, Sanskrit Nirvána, is composed of ni and vána. Ni + vána = Nivána = Nibána = Nibbána. Ni is a particle implying negation. Vána means weaving or craving. It is this craving which acts as a cord to connect the series of lives of any particular individual in the course of his wanderings in Samsára.
As long as one is entangled by craving or attachment, one accumulates fresh Karmic forces which must materialize in one form or other in the eternal cycle of birth and death. When all forms of craving are extirpated, Karmic forces cease to operate, and one, in conventional terms, attains Nibbána, escaping the cycle of birth and death. The Buddhist conception of Deliverance is this escape from the ever-recurring cycle of birth and death, and is not merely an escape from 'sin and hell'.
Etymologically, Nibbána, derived from ni + Ö vu, to weave, means non-craving or non-attachment , or 'departure from craving'. Strictly speaking, Nibbána is that Dhamma which is gained by the complete destruction of all forms of craving.
Nibbána is also derived from ni + Ö vá, to blow. In that case Nibbána means the blowing out, the extinction, or the annihilation of the flames of lust, hatred, and ignorance. It should be understood that the mere destruction of passions is not Nibbána (khayamattam eva na nibbánanti vattabbam). It is only the means to gain Nibbána, and is not an end in itself.
Nibbána is an ultimate reality (vatthu-dhamma) which is supramundane (lokuttara), that is, beyond the world of mind and body or the five 'aggregates'.
Nibbána is to be understood by intuitive knowledge and inferential knowledge (paccakkha or pativedha ñána and anumána or anubodha ñána). To express both ideas it is stated that Nibbána is to be realized by means of the wisdom pertaining to the four Paths of Sainthood and that it becomes an object to the Paths and Fruits.
Intrinsically (sabhávato) Nibbána is peaceful (santi). As such it is unique (kevala). This single Nibbána is viewed as twofold according to the way it is experienced before and after death. The text uses a simple but recondite Páli phrase - káranapariyáyena. The Ceylon Commentary explains the cause for naming it as such with respect to its having or not having the aggregates as the remainder (sa-upádisesádivasena paññápane káranabhútassa upádisesábhávábhávassa lesena). Adding a note on this term S. Z. Aung writes: "The Ceylon Commentaries explain it by paññápane káranassa lesena - by way of device of the means (of knowing) in the matter of language." - Compendium, p. 168, n. 6.
Saupádisesa - Sa = with; upadi = aggregates (mind and body); sesa = remaining. Upádi, derived from upa + á + Ö dá, to take, means the five aggregates as they are firmly grasped by craving and false views. It also signifies passions (kilesas). According to the text and the Commentarial interpretations, Nibbána, experienced by Sotápannas, Sakadágámis, and Anágámis, is saupádisesa-nibbánadhátu as they have the body and some passions still remaining. Nibbána of the Arahats is also saupádisesa-nibbánadhátu as they have the body still remaining. It is only the Nibbána of the Arahats after their death that is termed anupádisesa-nibbánadhátu because the aggregates and the passions are discarded by them.
Itivuttaka refers to these two kinds of Nibbána, but mention is made only of Nibbána comprehended by Arahats. It states:
60. Suññata - Devoid of lust, hatred, and ignorance or of all conditioned things. Void here does not mean that Nibbána is 'nothingness'.
61. Animitta - Free from the signs of lust, etc., or from the signs of all conditioned things.
62. Appanihita - Free from the hankerings of lust, etc., or because it is not longed for with any feelings of craving.
63. Padam - Here the term is used in the sense of an objective reality (vatthu-dhamma). 'State' does not exactly convey the meaning of the Páli term. It may be argued whether Nibbána could strictly be called either a state or a process. In Páli it is designated as a 'Dhamma'.
64. Asankhata - Nibbána is the only Dhamma which is not conditioned by any cause. Hence it is eternal and is neither a cause nor an effect.
How different types of consciousness produce various kinds of rúpa
+ = Yes, - = No