CHAPTER I - Different Types of Consciousness (citta-sangaha-vibhágo)
1. Abhidhammattha-Sangaha is the name of the book. Abhidhamma, literally, means "Higher Doctrine". Attha here means "things". Sangaha means "a compendium".
The prefix "abhi" is used in the sense of preponderant, great, excellent, sublime, distinct, etc.
2. Dhamma is a multi-significant term, derived from the root Ö dhar, to hold, to support. Here the Páli term is used in the sense of doctrine or teaching. According to the Atthasálini, "abhi" signifies either "atireka" -higher, greater, exceeding - or "visittha" - distinguished, distinct, special, sublime.
Abhidhamma means the Higher Doctrine because it enables one to achieve one's Deliverance, or because it exceeds the teachings of the Sutta Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka.
In the Sutta Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka the Buddha has used conventional terms such as man, animal, being, and so on. In the Abhidhamma Pitaka, on the contrary, everything is microscopically analyzed and abstract terms are used. As a distinction is made with regard to the method of treatment, it is called Abhidhamma.
Thus, chiefly owing to the preponderance of the teachings, or because it is conducive to one's Deliverance, and owing to the excellent analytical method of treatment, it is called Abhidhamma.
3. The Abhidhamma Pitaka consists of seven treatises - namely,
(Dhammasangani Vibhangań ca - Kathávatthu ca Puggalam Dhátu-Yamaka-Pathánam-Abhidhammo' ti vuccati)
i. Dhammasangani - "Classification of Dhammas".
This book is divided into four chapters, viz:-
The 22 Tika Mátikás (Triplets) and the 100 Duka-Mátikás (Couplets), which comprise the quintessence of the Abhidhamma, are explained in this book. The major part of the book is devoted to the explanation of the first triplet - kusalá dhammá, akusalá dhammá and abyákatá dhammá. In extent the book exceeds thirteen Bhánaváras* (recitals), i.e., more than 104,000 letters.
ii. Vibhanga - "Divisions".
There are eighteen divisions in this book.
The first three divisions, which deal with
are the most important.
The other chapters deal with
Most of these divisions consist of three parts - Suttanta explanation, Abhidhamma explanation, and a Catechism (Pańhapucchaka).
In this treatise there are thirty-five Bhánaváras (280,000 letters).
iii. Dhátukathá - "Discussion with reference to Elements".
This book discusses whether Dhammas are included or not included in, associated with, or dissociated from:
There are fourteen chapters in this work. In extent it exceeds six Bhánaváras (48,000 letters).
iv. Puggalapańńatti - "Designation of Individuals".
In the method of exposition this book resembles the Anguttara Nikáya of the Sutta Pitaka. Instead of dealing with various Dhammas, it deals with various types of individuals. There are ten chapters in this book. The first chapter deals with single individuals, the second with pairs, the third with groups of three, etc. In extent it exceeds five Bhánaváras (40,000 letters).
v. Kathávatthu - "Points of Controversy". The authorship of this treatise is ascribed to Venerable Moggalliputta Tissa Thera, who flourished in the time of King Dhammásoka. It was he who presided at the third Conference held at Pátalaliputta (Patna) in the 3rd century B.C. This work of his was included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka at that Conference.
The Atthasálini Commentary states that it contains one thousand Suttas: five hundred orthodox and five hundred heterodox. In extent it is about the size of the Dígha Nikáya.
This book deals with 216 controversies and is divided into 23 chapters.
vi. Yamaka - "The Book of Pairs".
It is so called owing to its method of treatment. Throughout the book a question and its converse are found grouped together. For instance, the first pair of the first chapter of the book, which deals with roots, runs as follows: Are all wholesome Dhammas wholesome roots? And are all wholesome roots wholesome Dhammas?
This book is divided into ten chapters - namely,
In extent it contains 120 Bhánaváras (960,000 letters).
vii. Patthána - "The Book of Causal Relations".
This is the most important and the most voluminous book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. One who patiently reads this treatise cannot but admire the profound wisdom and penetrative insight of the Buddha. There is no doubt of the fact that to produce such an elaborate and earned treatise one must certainly be an intellectual genius.
The term Patthána is composed of the prefix "pa", various and "thána", relation or condition (paccaya). It is so called because it deals with the 24 modes of causal relations (explained in a subsequent chapter) and the triplets (tika) and couplets (duka) already mentioned in the Dhammasangani, and which comprise the essence of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
The importance attached to this treatise, also known as "Mahá Pakarana", the Great Book, could be gauged by the words of the Atthasálini which states: "And while He contemplated the contents of the Dhammasangani His body did not emit rays, and similarly with the contemplation of the next five books. But, when coming to the Great Book, He began to contemplate the 24 universal causal relations of condition of presentation, and so on, His omniscience certainly found its opportunity therein.*
* For a detailed exposition of these seven books see Rev. Nyanatiloka, Guide through the Abhidhamma Pitaka, and the introductory discourse of the Expositor, part i, p. 5-21. See also Buddhist Psychology, p. 135, 193. Relations, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, and the Editor's Foreword to the Tikapatthána Text
Subject - Matter (Abhidhammatthá)
4. Realities - There are two realities - apparent and ultimate. Apparent reality is ordinary conventional truth (sammuti-sacca). Ultimate reality is abstract truth (paramattha-sacca).
For instance, the smooth surface of the table we see is apparent reality. In an ultimate sense the apparent surface consists of forces and qualities or in other words, vibrations.
For ordinary purposes a scientist would use the term water, but in the laboratory he would say H2O. In the same way the Buddha in the Sutta Pitaka resorts to conventional usage such as man, woman, being, self, etc., but in the Abhidhamma Pitaka He adopts a different mode of expression. Here He employs the analytical method and uses abstract terms such as aggregates (khandha), elements (dhátu), bases (áyatana), etc.
The word paramattha is of great significance in Abhidhamma. It is a compound formed of parama and attha. Parama is explained as immutable (aviparíta), abstract (nibbattita); attha means thing. Paramattha, therefore, means immutable or abstract thing. Abstract reality may be suggested as the closest equivalent. Although the term immutable is used here it should not be understood that all paramattha are eternal or permanent.
A brass vessel, for example, is not paramattha. It changes every moment and may be transmuted into a vase. Both these objects could be analyzed and reduced into fundamental material forces and qualities, which, in Abhidhamma, are termed rúpa paramattha. They are also subject to change, yet the distinctive characteristics of these rúpas are identically the same whether they are found in a vessel or a vase. They preserve their identity in whatever combination they are found - hence the commentarial interpretation of parama as immutable or real. Attha exactly corresponds to the English multi-significant term "thing". It is not used in the sense of "meaning" here.
There are four such paramattha or abstract realities. These four embrace everything that is mundane or supra mundane.
The so-called being is mundane. Nibbána is supra mundane. The former is composed of náma and rúpa. According to Abhidhamma rúpa connotes both fundamental units of matter and material changes as well. As such Abhidhamma enumerates 28 species of matter. These will be dealt with in a subsequent chapter. Náma, denotes both consciousness and mental states. The second chapter of this book deals with such mental states (cetasikas) which are 52 in number. One of these is vedaná (feeling). Another is sańńá (perception). The remaining 50 are collectively called sankhára (mental states). The receptacle of these mental properties is vińńána (consciousness), which is the subject-matter of this present chapter.
According to the above analysis the so-called being is composed of five Groups or Aggregates (pańcakkhandha):- rúpa (matter), vedaná (feeling), sańńá (perception), sankhára (mental states) and vińńána (consciousness).
Consciousness, mental states (with the exception of 8 types of supra mundane consciousness and their adjuncts), and matter are Mundane (lokiya), and Nibbána is Supra mundane (lokuttara). The Supra mundane Nibbána is the only absolutely reality, which is the summum bonum of Buddhism. The other three are called realities in that they are things that exist (vijjamána dhammá). Besides, they are irreducible, immutable, and abstract things. They deal with what is within us and around us.
The first paramattha or reality is citta. It is derived from the root Ö citi, to think. According to the commentary citta is that which is aware of (cinteti = vijánáti) an object. It is not that which thinks of an object as the term implies. From an Abhidhamma standpoint citta may better be defined as the awareness of an object, since there is no agent like a soul.
Citta, ceta, cittuppáda, náma, mana, vińńána are all used as synonymous terms in Abhidhamma. Hence from the Abhidhamma standpoint no distinction is made between mind and consciousness. When the so-called being is divided into its two constituent parts, náma (mind) is used. When it is divided into five aggregates (pańcakkhandha), vińńána is used. The term citta is invariably employed while referring to different classes of consciousness. In isolated cases, in the ordinary sense of mind, both terms citta and mana are frequently used.
The other three paramatthas will be dealt with in their due places.
The Four Classes of Consciousness (catubbidha-cittáni)
tattha cittam táva catubbidhara hoti:-
§ 3. Of them, consciousness, first, is fourfold namely:-
5. Káma is either subjective sensual craving or sensuous objects such as forms, sound, odor, taste, and contact. By káma is also meant the eleven different kinds of sentient existence-namely, the four states of misery (apáya), human realm (manussaloka), and, six celestial realms (sagga).
Avacara means that which moves about or that which frequents. Kámávacara, therefore, means that which mostly moves about in the sentient realm, or that which pertains to the senses and their corresponding objects. As a rule, these types of consciousness arise mostly in the aforesaid sentient existence. They are found in other spheres of life as well when objects of sense are perceived by the mind.
6. Rúpávacara, Arúpávacara respectively mean either that which pertains to rúpa and arúpa jhánas (ecstasies) or that which mostly moves about in the rúpa and arúpa planes.
Rúpalokas are planes where those who develop rúpa jhánas are born.
A question now arises - 'Why are these distinguished as rúpalokas when there are subtle material bodies (rúpa) in heavenly planes too?' The commentarial explanation is that because beings are born in these planes by developing jhánas based mainly on rúpa kasinas, - material objects of concentration such as earth, water, fire, etc.
Arúpalokas are planes without material bodies. By the power of meditation, only the mind exists in these planes.
Ordinarily both mind and body are inseparable, but by will-power, under exceptional circumstances, they could be separated, just as it is possible to suspend a piece of iron in air by some magnetic force.
7. Loka + Uttara = Lokuttara. Here Loka, means the five aggregates. Uttara means above, beyond or that which transcends. It is the supra-mundane consciousness that enables one to transcend this world of mind-body
The first three classes of consciousness are called lokiya (mundane).
Consciousness pertaining the sensuous Sphere
Immoral Consciousness (akusala cittáni)
§ 4. tattha katamam kámávacaram?
§ 4. Amongst them what is Kámávacara?
(Consciousness Rooted in Attachment)
Somanassa-sahagatam, ditthigatasampayuttam, asankhárikam ekam
One consciousness, unprompted, accompanied by pleasure, connected with wrong view
Somanassa-sahagatam, ditthigatasampayuttam, sasankhárikam ekam,
One consciousness, prompted, accompanied by pleasure, connected with wrong view
Somanassa-sahagatam ditthigatavippayuttam, asankhárikam ekam
One consciousness, unprompted, accompanied by pleasure, disconnected with wrong view
Somanassa-sahagatam ditthigatavippayuttam, sasankhárikam ekam
One consciousness, prompted, accompanied by pleasure, disconnected with wrong view
Upekkhá-sahagatam, ditthigatasampayuttam, asankhárikam ekam
One consciousness, unprompted, accompanied by indifference, connected with wrong view
Upekkhá-sahagatam, ditthigatasampayuttam, sasankhárikam ekam
One consciousness, prompted, accompanied by indifference, connected with wrong view
Upekkhá-sahagatam, ditthigatavippayuttam, asankhárikam ekam
One consciousness, unprompted, accompanied by indifference, disconnected with wrong view
Upekkhá-sahagatam, ditthigatavippayuttam, sasankhárikam ekan' ti
One consciousness, prompted, accompanied by indifference, disconnected with wrong view
Imáni attha'pi Lobhasahagatacittáni náma
These eight types of consciousness are rooted in Attachment
(Consciousness Rooted in Ill-will or Aversion)
Domanassasahagatam, patighasampayuttam, asańkhárikam ekam
One consciousness, unprompted, accompanied by displeasure, connected with ill-will
Domanassasahagatam, patighasampayuttam, sasańkhárikam ekan' ti
One consciousness, prompted, accompanied by displeasure, connected with ill-will
Imani dve'pi Patighasampayuttacittáni náma.
These two types of consciousness are connected with Ill-will.
(Consciousness Rooted in Delusion or Ignorance)
Upekkhá-sahagatam, vicikicchá-sampayuttam ekam,
One consciousness, accompanied by indifference, and connected with doubts,
Upekkhá-sahagatam, uddhacca-sampayuttam ekan 'ti
One consciousness, accompanied by indifference, and connected with restlessness.
Imani dve' pi Momúhacittáni náma
Icce'vam sabbathá pi dvádasakusala-cittáni samattáni.
These two types of consciousness are rooted in sheer Ignorance.
Thus end, in all, the twelve types of Immoral Consciousness.
Atthadhá lobhamúláni-dosamúláni ca dvidhá
Mohamuláni ca dve'ti-dvádasákusala siyum.
Eight are rooted in Attachment, two in Ill-will, and two in Ignorance.
Thus there are twelve types of Immoral Consciousness.
8. Akusala, Kusala, Vipáka, Kiriya-
In the previous section consciousness was broadly classified under four divisions according to the planes in which it is experienced. With respect to its nature it divides itself into four classes. Some types of consciousness are immoral (akusala), because they spring from attachment (lobha), aversion or ill-will (patigha), and ignorance (moha). Opposed to them are the moral types of consciousness (kusala), because they are rooted in non-attachment or generosity (alobha), goodwill (adosa), and wisdom (amoha). The former are unwholesome as they produce undesirable effects (anittha vipáka), the latter are wholesome as they produce desirable effects (ittha vipáka). Both kusala and akusala cittas constitute what, in Páli, are termed kamma. Those types of consciousness that arise as the inevitable results of these kusala and akusala cittas are called vipáka (resultant) cittas. It should be understood that both kamma and vipáka are purely mental. The fourth type of consciousness is called kiriya which, for want of a better term, is rendered by "karmically ineffective", "inoperative" or "functional".
9. Three Roots (Múla)-
Lobha, dosa, and moha are the three roots of evil. Their opposites are the roots of good.
Lobha, from Ö lubh, to cling, or attach itself, may be rendered by 'attachment' or 'clinging'. Some scholars prefer 'greed'. Craving is also used as an equivalent of lobha.
In the case of a desirable object of sense, there arises, as a rule, clinging or attachment. In the case of an undesirable object, ordinarily there is aversion.
In Páli such aversion is termed dosa or patigha. Dosa is derived from Ö dus, to be displeased. Patigha is derived from 'pati', against, and Ö 'gha' (han), to strike, to contact. Ill-will, hatred are also suggested as equivalents of 'patigha'.
Moha is derived from Ö muh, to delude. It is delusion, stupidity, bewilderment. It is 'moha' that clouds an object and blinds the mind. Sometimes 'moha' is rendered by ignorance.
According to Abhidhamma, moha is common to all evil. Lobha and dosa do not arise alone, but always in combination with moha. Moha, on the other hand, does arise singly-hence the designation 'momúha', intense delusion.
Diametrically opposed to the above three roots are the roots of kusala. They not only indicate the absence of certain evil conditions, but also signify the presence of certain positive good conditions. Alobha does not merely mean non-attachment, but also generosity. Adosa does not merely mean non-anger or non-hatred, but also goodwill, or benevolence, or loving-kindness (mettá). Amoha does not merely mean non-delusion, but also wisdom or knowledge (ńána or pańńá).
10. Vedaná or Feeling-
Feeling or, as some prefer to say, sensation, is a mental state common to all types of consciousness. Chiefly there are three kinds of feelings -namely, 'somanassa' (pleasurable), 'domanassa' (displeasurable), and 'upekkhá' (indifferent, neutral, equanimity or neither pleasurable nor displeasurable). With 'dukkha' (physical pain) and 'sukha' (physical happiness) there are altogether five kinds of feelings.
Somanassa is an abstract noun formed of 'su', good, and 'mana', mind. Literally, the term means good-mindedness, i.e., a pleasurable feeling. Similarly 'domanassa' ('du', bad, and 'mana', mind) means bad-mindedness i.e., a displeasurable feeling. The third feeling is neutral. Indifference is used here in this particular sense, but not in the sense of callousness. Sukha is composed of 'su', easy, and 'kha' to bear, or to endure. What is easily endured is 'sukha' i.e., happiness. Dukkha (du, difficult), pain, is that which is difficult to be endured. Both these sensations are physical. According to Abhidhamma there is only one type of consciousness accompanied by pain, and one accompanied by happiness. Two are connected with a displeasurable feeling. Of the 89 types of consciousness, in the remaining 85 are found either a pleasurable feeling or a neutral feeling.
Somanassa, domanassa, and upekkhá are purely mental. Sukha and dukkha are purely physical. This is the reason why there is no upekkhá in the case of touch which, according to Abhidhamma, must be either happy or painful. (See Upekkhá, Note. 42)
This term is derived from Ö 'dis', to see, to perceive. It is usually translated as view, belief, opinion, etc. When qualified by 'samma', it means right view or right belief; when qualified by 'micchá', it means wrong view or wrong belief. Here the term is used without any qualification in the sense of wrong view.
This is purely a technical term used in a specific sense in the Abhidhamma. It is formed of 'sam', well and Ö 'kar', to do, to prepare, to accomplish. Literally, it means accomplishing, preparing, arranging.
Like dhamma, sankhára also is a multisignificant term. Its precise meaning is to be understood according to the context.
When used as one of the five 'aggregates' (pańcakkhandha), it refers to all the mental states, except vedaná and sańńá. In the paticca-samuppáda it is applied to all moral and immoral activities, good and bad thoughts. When sankhára is used to signify that which is subject to change, sorrow, etc., it is invariably applied to all conditioned things.
In this particular instance the term is used with 'sa' = co-; and a = un, Sa-sankhárika (lit., with effort) is that which is prompted, instigated, or induced by oneself or by another. 'Asankhárika' (lit., without effort) is that which is thus unaffected, but done spontaneously.
If, for instance, one does an act, induced by another, or after much deliberation or premeditation on one's part, then it is sa-sankhárika. If, on the contrary, one does it instantly without any external or internal inducement, or any premeditation, then it is asankhárika.
This is an ethic-religious term. Commentary gives two interpretations.
(1.) Vici = vicinanto, seeking, inquiring; - kicch, to tire, to strain, to be vexed. It is vexation due to perplexed thinking.
(2.) Vi, devoid + cikicchá, remedy (of knowledge). It means that which is devoid of the remedy of knowledge.
Both these interpretations indicate a perplexed or undecided frame of mind. Doubt, perplexity, skepticism, indecision are used as the closest English equivalents.
Reasoning or investigation for the sake of understanding the truth is not discouraged in Buddhism. Nor is blind faith advocated in Buddhism.
[Vicihicchá is the inability to decide anything definitely that it is as such. Buddhaghosa-Majjhima Nikáya Commentary.]
This is formed of u = over, and - dhu, to tremble, to get excited. Literally, it means 'over-excitement' or 'rousing up'. A confused restless state of mind is meant here. It is the antithesis of one-pointedness. Atthasálini explains uddhacca as disquietude, mental distraction or confusion.
15. Kusala and Akusala-
This section deals with akusala types of consciousness. Akusala is the direct opposite of kusala. Atthasálini gives the etymological meaning of kusala as follows:-
(1.) ku, bad, + Ö sal, to shake, to tremble, to destroy. That which shakes off, destroys evil or contemptible things is kusala.
(2.) kusa + Ö lu, to cut.
Kusa is from ku, bad, and Ö si, to lie. That which lies contemptibly is kusa, vice. Kusala is that which cuts off vice.
(3.) a.) ku, evil, bad, + Ö su, to reduce. That which reduces or eradicates evil is kusa, knowledge or wisdom. Kusa, so derived, + Ö lu, to cut. That which cuts off (evil) by wisdom is kusala.
b.) Kusa, so derived, + Ö la, to take. That which is grasped by wisdom is kusala.
(4.) Kusa grass cuts a part of the hand with both edges. Even so kusala cuts off both sections of passions - those that have arisen and those that have not arisen.
With regard to the connotation of the term the Atthasálini states:-
"The word kusala means 'of good health' (árogya), 'faultless' (anavajja), 'clever' (cheka), 'productive of happy results' (sukha-vipáka)".
With the exception of 'clever' all the other three meanings are applicable to kusala.
Kusala is wholesome in the sense of being free from physical and mental sickness through passions.
Kusala is faultless in the sense of being free from the fault of passions, the evil of passions, and the heat of passions.
Here sukha-vipáka does not necessarily mean pleasurable feeling. It is used in the sense of physical and mental buoyancy, softness, fitness, etc.
Atthasálini further states kusala is used in the sense of having accomplished with wisdom (kosallasambhútatthena; kosallam vuccati pańńá).
Judging from the various meanings attached to the term, kusala may be interpreted as wholesome or moral. Some scholars prefer 'skillful'.
Akusala would therefore mean unwholesome or immoral.
Kusala and akusala correspond to good and bad, right and wrong respectively.
16. How are we to assess whether an action is kusala or akusala? What is the criterion of morality?
In short what is connected with the three roots of evil is akusala. What is connected with the three roots of good is kusala.
As a seed sown on fertile soil germinates and fructifies itself sooner or later, according to its own intrinsic nature, even so kusala and akusala actions produce their due desirable and undesirable effects. They are called vipáka.
17. Kiriya or Kriyá, literally, means action.
Here Kiriya is used in the sense of ineffective action. Kamma is causally effective. Kiriya is causally ineffective. Good deeds of Buddhas and Arahats are called kiriya because kamma is not accumulated by them as they have gone beyond both good and evil.
In Abhidhamma vipáka and kiriya are collectively called avyákata (Indeterminate), that which does not manifest itself in the way of an effect. The former is avyákata, because it is an effect in itself, the latter, because it does not produce an effect.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES FOR THE TWELVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF IMMORAL CONSCIOUSNESS:
(1.) With joy a boy instantly steals an apple, viewing no evil thereby.
(2.) Prompted by a friend, a boy joyfully steals an apple, viewing no evil thereby.
(3.) (4.) The same illustration serves for the third and fourth types of consciousness with the difference that the stealing is done
without any false view.
(5.) (6.) (7.) (8.) The remaining four types of consciousness are similar to the above with the difference that the stealing is done with neutral feeling.
(9.) With hatred one murders another without any premeditation.
(10.) With hatred one murders another after premeditation.
19. Killing:- According to Abhidhamma killing is invariably done with ill-will or aversion. Prompted by whatever motive, one, as a rule, kills with a thought of ill-will. Where there is ill-will (patigha) there is displeasure (domanassa). Where there is displeasure there is ill-will in a subtle or gross way.
Suppose, for instance, a little child, who cannot discriminate between right and wrong, smilingly kills an ant. He does not know that he is committing the evil of killing. He is only playing with it. Now, does he cherish any ill-will towards the ant? Is there any hatred or ill-feeling in his case? It is difficult to say so. What type of consciousness does he experience at that moment? It cannot be the 9th and 10th types because he innocently does it with joy, fondling the object. Could it be the third type of consciousness rooted in "lobha"?
An adult who kills for sport does experience the 9th or 10th type of consciousness. There is ill-feeling at the moment of killing.
What about vivisection? A scientist may vivisect without the least compunction. His chief motive may be scientific investigation for consequent alleviation of suffering. Yet, there is the thought of killing.
Does one experience ill-will when one kills a wounded animal with the object of putting an end to its suffering? Moved by compassion, one may do so; yet there is ill-will at the moment of killing, because there is a certain kind of aversion towards the object. If such an action is morally justifiable, could one object to the wholesale destruction of patients suffering from acute chronic incurable diseases?
It was stated above that there is ill-will where there is displeasure.
When, for instance, one feels sorry for having failed in an examination, does one harbor ill-will at that time? If one reflects on the meaning of the term patigha, the answer will become clear. There is no doubt a subtle kind of aversion over the unpleasant news. It is the same in the case of a person who weeps over the death of a dear one, because it is an unwelcome event. Anágámis and Arahats never feel sorry nor grieve, because they have eradicated patigha or dosa (hatred or ill-will).
Great was the lamentation of Venerable Ananda, who was a Sotápanna Saint, on the passing away of the Buddha; but Arahats and Anágámis like Venerable Kassapa and Anuruddha, practiced perfect equanimity without shedding a tear.
(11.) A person doubts the existence of the Buddha, or the efficacy of the Dhamma, owing to his stupidity.
(12.) A person is distracted in mind, unable to concentrate on an object.
As these two types of consciousness are feeble, due to stupidity or dullness of mind, the accompanied feeling is neither pleasurable nor displeasurable, but neutral.
21. The ten kinds of akusala (evil) in relation to the twelve types of immoral consciousness.
There are ten kinds of evil committed through deed, word and thought.
All these akusalas are committed by the afore-mentioned twelve types of akusala consciousness. Killing is generally done by the 9th and 10th types of consciousness. Stealing is generally done with the first eight types of consciousness.
Sexual misconduct is committed with the first eight types of consciousness.
Theft may be committed with a hateful thought too. In such a case there is the possibility of stealing with the 9th and 10th types of consciousness.
Lying may be uttered with the first ten types of consciousness; and so is slandering.
Harsh speech is uttered with the 9th and 10th types of consciousness. Vain talk may spring from the first ten types of consciousness. Covetousness springs from the first eight types of consciousness. Hatred springs from the 9th and 10th types of consciousness. False views spring from the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 6th.
22. Eradication of the Akusala Cittas by the four classes of Aryan disciples.
A Sotápanna (Stream-Winner) eradicates the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th, and 11th types of consciousness as he has destroyed the two Fetters (samyojana)-sakkáya-ditthi (Self-illusion) and vicikicchá (Doubts).
A Sakadágámi (Once-Returner), who has attained the second stage of Sainthood, weakens the potentiality of the 9th and 10th types of consciousness, because he has only attenuated the two Fetters - kámarága (Sense-desire) and patigha (Hatred).
An Anágámí (Never-Returner), who has attained the third stage of Sainthood, eradicates the above two types of consciousness as he has completely destroyed the said two Fetters.
An Arahat does not give rise to any of the twelve akusala cittas as he has eradicated the remaining five Fetters too - namely, rúparága (Attachment to rúpa jhánas and Form-Spheres), arúparága (Attachment to arúpa jhánas and Formless-Spheres), mána (Conceit), uddhacca (Restlessness) and avijjá (Not-knowingness or Ignorance).
(sílabbata paramasa - Indulgence in wrongful rites and ceremonies, one of the ten Fetters, not mentioned above, is eradicated by a Sotápanna).
(akusala vipáka cittáni)
Imani satta'pi Akusala Vipaka Cittani náma.
(kusala vipák'áhetuka cittáni)
Imáni attha' pi Kusalavipák'áhetukacittáni náma.
(ahetuka kiriya cittáni)
Imáni tîni' pi ahetuka-kiriya cittáni náma.
Icc'evamsabbathá'pi atthárasáhetukacittáni samattáni.
Sattákusalapákáani - puńńápákáni atthadhá
Kiriyácittáni tîni'ti - atthárasa Ahetuká.
(18 Types Of Rootless Consciousness)
(Immoral Resultant Consciousness without Roots)
§ 5. (1) Eye-consciousness, accompanied by indifference. So are
(4) Tongue consciousness,
(5) Body-consciousness, accompanied by pain,
(6) Receiving consciousness, accompanied by indifference,
(7) Investigating consciousness, accompanied by indifference.
These seven are the immoral resultant types of consciousness.
(Moral Resultant Consciousness without Roots)
These eight are the moral resultant types of consciousness without Hetu.
(Functional Consciousness without Roots)
These three are the functional types of consciousness without Hetu.
Thus end, in all, the eighteen types of consciousness without Hetu.
Seven are immoral resultants. Moral resultants are Eightfold.
Three are functionals. Ahetukas are eighteen.
23. Hetu is usually rendered by 'causal condition'. In the Suttas we often come across such phrases as 'ko hetu, ko paccayo', - 'what cause, what reason'. In the Abhidhamma both hetu and paccaya are differentiated and are used in specific senses. The term hetu is applied to the six roots explained above. Paccaya is an aiding condition (upakáraka dhamma). Like the root of a tree is hetu. Paccaya is like water, manure, etc.
The aforesaid eighteen classes of consciousness are called 'a-hetuka' because they are devoid of 'concomitant hetus' (sampayuttaka hetu). It must be understood that even ahetuka cittas are not devoid of an efficient cause (nibbattaka hetu). The remaining 71 classes of consciousness are called Sa-hetuka, with Roots. In two there is only one Root, in sixty nine there are two or three Roots.
24. Dvipańcavińńána - Five pairs of moral and immoral resultant consciousness are enumerated here. They are so called because they are dependent on the five senses. As they are comparatively weak they are accompanied by neutral feeling, with the exception of body-consciousness which is accompanied by either pain or happiness. It should be noted that, in the Abhidhamma, these five pairs of consciousness are sometimes referred to as 'dvipancavińńána', the two sampaticchana cittas and pańca-dvárávajjana citta as 'mano dhátu' (mind-element), the rest (76) as 'mano vińńána dhátu' (mind-consciousness element).
25. Sampaticchana is that moment of consciousness which accepts or receives an object. Santírana is that which investigates an object. That moment of consciousness which turns towards one of the five sense-objects is called the pańca-dvárávajjana. Mano-dvárávajjana is that moment of consciousness which turns the mind towards a mental object. Pańca-dvárávajjana and mano-dvárávajjana are the only two moments of kiriya cittas experienced by those who are not Arahats. All the other kiriya cittas are experienced only by Buddhas and Arahats. It is this mano-dvárávajjana citta that performs the function of votthapana (deciding) which will be dealt with later.
26. Hasituppáda is a citta peculiar to Arahats. Smiling is caused by a pleasurable feeling. There are thirteen classes of consciousness by which one may smile according to the type of the person. An ordinary worldling (puthujjana) may laugh with either one of the four types of cittas rooted in attachment, accompanied by pleasure, or one of the four kusala cittas, accompanied by pleasure.
Sotápannas, Sakadágámís, and Anágámís may smile with one of the two akusala cittas, disconnected with false view, accompanied by pleasure, or with one of the four kusala cittas.
Arahats and Pacceka Buddhas may smile with one of the four sobhana kiriya cittas or hasituppáda.
Sammá Sambuddhas smile with one of the two sobhana kiriya cittas, accompanied by wisdom and pleasure.
There is nothing but mere mirth in the hasituppáda consciousness.
The Compendium of Philosophy states: "There are six classes of laughter recognized in Buddhist works: (1) sita: - a smile manifesting itself in expression and countenance; (2) hasita: - a smile consisting in the slight movements of the lips just enough to reveal the tips of the teeth; (3) vihasita: - laughter giving out a light sound; (4) upahasita: - laughter accompanied by the movement of the head, shoulders, and arms; (5) apahasita: - laughter accompanied by the shedding of tears; and (6) atihasita: - an outburst of laughter accompanied by the forward and backward movements of the entire body from head to foot. Laughter is thus a form of bodily expression (káya-vińńatti), which may or may not be accompanied by vocal expression (vací-vińńatti). Of these, the first two classes are indulged in by cultured persons, the next two by the average man, and the last two by the lower classes of being.
The subject, the consciousness, receives objects from within and without. When a person is in a state of profound sleep his mind is said to be vacant, or, in other words, in a state of bhavanga. We always experience such a passive state when our minds do not respond to external objects. This flow of bhavanga is interrupted when objects enter the mind. Then the bhavanga consciousness vibrates for one thought-moment and passes away. Thereupon the sense-door consciousness (pańca-dvárávajjana) arises and ceases. At this stage the natural flow is checked and is turned towards the object. Immediately after there arises and ceases the eye consciousness* (cakkhu vińńána), but yet knows no more about it. This sense operation is followed by a moment of reception of the object so seen (sampaticchana). Next comes the investigating faculty (santírana) or a momentary examination of the object so received. After this comes that stage of representative cognition termed the determining consciousness (votthapana). Discrimination is exercised at this stage. Freewill plays its part here. Immediately after there arises the psychologically most important stage - Impulsion or javana. It is at this stage that an action is judged whether moral or immoral. Kamma is performed at this stage; if viewed rightly (yoniso manasikára), the javana becomes moral; if viewed wrongly (ayoniso manasikára), it becomes immoral. In the case of an Arahat this javana is neither moral nor immoral, but merely functional (kiriya). This javana stage usually lasts for seven thought moments, or, at times of death, five. The whole process which happens in an infinitesimal part of time ends with the registering consciousness (tadálambana), lasting for two thought-moments - thus completing one thought-process at the expiration of seventeen thought-moments.
*[i.e., if the object is a form (rúpa). This consciousness depends on the five objects of sense.]
The three kinds of bhavanga consciousness are vipáka. They are either one of the two santírana cittas, accompanied by indifference, mentioned above, or one of the eight sobhana vipáka cittas, described in section 6. Pańca-dvárávajjana is a kriyá citta. Pańca vińńána is one of the ten moral and immoral vipáka cittas. Sampaticchana and santírana are also vipáka cittas. The mano-dvárávajjana (mind-door consciousness), a kriyá citta, functions as the votthapana consciousness. One can use one's freewill at this stage. The seven javana thought-moments constitute kamma. The tadálambana is a vipáka citta which is one of the three santírana cittas or one of the eight sobhana vipáka cittas.
Thus in a particular thought-process there arise various thought-moments which may be kamma, vipáka, or kriyá.
*[A detailed exposition of this subject will appear in Chapter IV.]
THOUGHT PROCESS: According to Abhidhamma when an object is presented to the mind through one of the five doors a thought process runs as follows:-
1 Atíta Bhavanga Past Bhavanga
2 Bhavanga Calana Vibrating Bhavanga
3 Bhavanga-upaccheda Arrest Bhavanga
4 Pańca-dvárávajjana Sense-door Consciousness
5 Pańca Vińńána Sense-consciousness
6 Sampaticchana Receiving Consciousness
7 Santírana Investigating Consciousness
8 Votthapana Determining Consciousness
9-15 Javana Impulsion
16-17 Tadálambana Registering Consciousness
§ 6. Pápáhetukamuttáni - Sobhanáni'ti vuccare
Ek'únasatthicittáni - ath'ekanavutí'pi vá
(atthá kámáváccara kusala cittáni)
1. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
2. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
3. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
4. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam sasankhárikam ekam,
5. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
6. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam sasankhárikam ekam,
7. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
8. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam sasankhárikam' ekan' ti
Imáni attha' pi sahetuka kámávacarakusalacittáni náma.
(atthá kámávácara vipáka cittáni)
9. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
10. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam sasankhárikam ekam,
11. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam asankhárikam ekam.
12. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam sasankhárikam ekam,
13. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
14. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam sasankhárikam ekam,
15. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
16. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam sasankhárikam ekan'ti.
Imáni attha' pi sahetuka kámávacara-vipákacittáni náma.
(attha kámávacara kriyá cittáni)
17. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
18. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam sasankhárikam ekam,
19. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam asankhárikam ekam.
20. Somanassa-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam sasankhárikam ekam,
21. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
22. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánasampayuttam sasankhárikam ekam,
23. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam asankhárikam ekam,
24. Upekkhá-sahagatam ńánavippayuttam sasankhárikam ekan'ti,
Imáni attha'pi sahetuka-kámávacara-kriyácittáni náma.
Icce' vam sabbathá'pi sahetuka-kámávacara-
kusala vipáka kriyá cittáni samattáni.
vedaná-ńána-sankhára - bhedena catuvísati
sahetú-kámávacara - puńńapákakriyá matá.
káme tevísapákáni - puńńá' puńńáni vísati
ekádasa kriyá c'áti - catupańńása sabbathá.
"Beautiful" Consciousness Of The Sensuous Sphere - 24
(Eight Types of Moral Consciousness)
(Eight types of Resultant Consciousness)
(Eight types of Functional Consciousness)
The moral, resultant, and functional types of consciousness of the sensuous sphere, with Hetus, which differ according to feeling knowledge, and inducement, should be understood as twenty-four.
In the sensuous sphere twenty-three are "Resultant", twenty "Moral" and "Immoral", and eleven are "Functional", fifty-four in all.
28. Sobhana - so called because they yield good qualities, and are connected with blameless roots such as generosity, loving-kindness, and knowledge. Com.
29. Pápa - is that which leads to misery. Evil or bad is a better rendering than sin which has a Christian outlook.
30. Hetuka - All the cittas that are to be described hereafter, are called sahetukas, with Roots, opposed to the ahetukas of the foregoing section. Of the twenty-four kámávacara sobhana cittas, twelve are connected with two good Roots: generosity (alobha) and loving-kindness (adosa); twelve with three good: hetus - generosity, loving-kindness, and knowledge (amoha).
31. Fifty-nine or ninety-one:
When the eight lokuttara cittas are developed by means of each of the five kusala rúpa jhánas, as will be explained at the end of this chapter, they total forty.
Then 24 + 15 + 12 + 40 = 91.
32. Ńána - is that which understands the reality (Com.) Here ńána is synonymous with wisdom, reason, or knowledge. It is opposed to moha (ignorance, delusion, or stupidity).
33. Asankhárika - unprompted (See note 12, p. *)
According to the commentary one does a good act on the spur of the moment without any particular inducement either from within or without, owing to physical and mental fitness, due to good food, climate, etc., and as a result of having performed similar actions in the past.
34. All good acts are done by one of these first eight cittas. Their corresponding effects are the eight resultant cittas. The eight ahetuka vipáka cittas are also the due effects of these kusala cittas. It, therefore, follows that there are sixteen vipáka cittas corresponding to eight kusala cittas, whereas in the case of twelve akusala cittas there are only seven ahetuka vipáka cittas.
The Buddhas and Arahats also experience all these twenty-three types of vipáka cittas as they are bound to reap the good and bad effects of their past actions till they die. But they do not experience the first eight kusala cittas as they do not accumulate fresh kamma that has any reproductive power, since they have eradicated all fetters that bind oneself to existence. When they do any good act, instead of the usual kusala cittas, they experience the eight kriyá cittas which possess no reproductive energy. Ordinary persons and even Holy Ones of the first three grades of Saint ship do not experience these eight cittas.
35. Illustrations for the first eight kusala cittas:
1. One understandingly gives something to a beggar at once with joy.
2. One understandingly gives something to a beggar with joy, after deliberation, or being induced by another.
3. A child, without any understanding, joyfully salutes a monk at once. Joyfully a person automatically recites a Sacred Text without understanding the meaning.
4. A child, without any understanding, joyfully salutes a monk, as instructed by the mother. A person joyfully repeats a Sacred Text, as taught by another, without understanding the meaning.
The remaining four types should be understood in the same way, substituting indifference for joy.
(rúpávacara kusala cittani-5)
Imáni pańca'pi rúpávacara-kusalacittánináma.
(rúpávacara vipáka cittáni-5)
2. Vicára-píti-sukh'ekaggatá-sahitam dutiyajjhána-vipákacittam,
Imáni pańca'pi rúpávacara-vipákacittáni náma.
(rúpávacara kriyá cittáni-5)
Imáni pańca'pi rúpávacara-kriyácittáni náma.
Pańcadhá jhánabhedena - rúpávacaramánasam
Puńńapákakriyábhedá - tam pańcadasadhá bhave.
(Form-Sphere Consciousness - 15)
(Form-Sphere Moral Consciousness - 5)
These are the five types of Form-Sphere Moral consciousness.
(Form-Sphere Resultant Consciousness - 5)
These are the five types of Jhána Resultant consciousness.
(Form-Sphere Functional Consciousness-5)
These are the five types of Form-Sphere Functional consciousness.
Thus end, in all, the fifteen types of Form-Sphere Moral Resultant, and Functional consciousness.
Form-Sphere consciousness is fivefold according to different Jhánas. That becomes fifteen fold according to Moral, Resultant and Functional types.
There are three planes of existence-namely, Sensuous Sphere (kámaloka), Form-Sphere (rúpaloka), and Formless-Sphere (arúpaloka). The four states of misery (apáya), human realm (manussa), and the six celestial realms (devaloka) constitute the kámaloka. It is so called because sense-desires play a predominant part in this sphere. The four states of misery are called duggati (evil states). Evil-doers are born in such states. The remaining seven are called sugati (good states). The good are born in these states of sensuous bliss.
The more evolved persons, who seek no delight in ordinary sense-desires, but are interested in higher spiritual progress, must naturally be born in congenial places in harmony with their lofty aspirations. Even in the human realm it is they who retire to solitude and engage themselves in meditation.
Such meditation (bhávaná) is of two kinds - samatha (concentration) and vipassaná (insight). Samatha, which means calm, or tranquillity is gained by developing the Jhánas. Vipassaná is seeing things as they truly are. With the aid of Jhánas one could develop higher psychic powers (abhińńá). It is vipassaná that leads to Enlightenment.
Those who develop Jhánas are born after death in higher Form-Spheres (rúpaloka) and Formless-spheres (arúpaloka).
In the Formless-Spheres there is no body but only mind. As a rule, both mind and body are interrelated, interdependent, and inseparable. But by will-power there is a possibility for the mind to be separated from the body and vice versa temporarily. Beings born in celestial realms and Form-Spheres are supposed to posses very subtle material forms.
The Compendium of Philosophy states that "Rúpaloka is so called because the subtle residuum of matter is said, in that place of existence, to be still met with. Arúpaloka is so called because no trace of matter is held to be found in it".
That which frequents the Rúpa-Sphere is rúpávacara. There are fifteen cittas pertaining to it. Five are kusalas, which one can develop in this life itself. Five are their corresponding vipákas which are experienced after death in the Rúpa-sphere. Five are kriyá cittas, which are experienced only by Buddhas and Arahats either in this life or by Arahats in the Rúpa-Sphere.
37. Jhána - Sanskrit dhyána-
The Páli term is derived from the root "jhe", to think. Venerable Buddhaghosa explains Jhána as follows, "Aramman'upanijjhánato paccaníkajhápanato vajhanam", Jhána is so called because it thinks closely of an object or because it burns those adverse things (hindrances - nívaranas).
By Jhána is meant willful concentration on an object.
Of the forty objects of concentration, enumerated in the 9th chapter of this book, the aspirant selects an object that appeals most to his temperament. This object is called parikamma nimitta - preliminary object.
He now intently concentrates on this object until he becomes so wholly absorbed in it that all adventitious thoughts get ipso facto excluded from the mind. A stage is ultimately reached when he is able to visualize the object even with closed eyes. On this visualized image (uggaha nimitta) he concentrates continuously until it develops into a conceptualized image (patibhága nimitta).
As an illustration let us take the pathaví kasina.
A circle of about one span and four inches in diameter is made and the surface is covered with dawn-colored clay and smoothed well. If there be not enough clay of the dawn color, he may put in some other kind of clay beneath. This hypnotic circle is known as the parikamma nimitta. Now he places this object about two and half cubits away from him and concentrates on it, saying mentally or inaudibly - pathaví or earth. The purpose is to gain the one-pointedness of the mind. When he does this for some time - perhaps weeks, or months, or years - he would be able to close his eyes and visualize the object. This visualized object is called uggaha nimitta. Then he concentrates on this visualized image, which is an exact mental replica of the object, until it develops into a conceptualized image which is called patibhága nimitta.
The difference between the first visualized image and the conceptualized image is that in the former the fault of the device appears, while the latter is clear of all such defects and is like a "well-burnished conchshell". The latter possesses neither color nor form. "It is just a mode of appearance, and is born of perception".
As he continually concentrates on this abstract concept he is said to be in possession of "proximate concentration" (upacára samádhi) and the innate five Hindrances to progress (nívarana), such as sense-desire (kámacchanda), hatred (patigha), sloth and torpor (thína-middha), restlessness and brooding (uddhacca-kukkucca), and doubts (vicikicchá) are temporarily inhibited.
Eventually he gains "ecstatic concentration" (appaná samádhi) and becomes enwrapped in Jhána, enjoying the calmness and serenity of a one-pointed mind.
As he is about to gain appaná samádhi a thought process runs as follows:- bhavanga, mano-dvárávajjana, parikamma, upacára, anuloma, gotrabhú, appaná.
When the stream of consciousness is arrested, there arises the Mind-door consciousness taking for its object the patibhága nimitta. This is followed by the Javana process which, as the case may be, starts with either parikamma or upacára. Parikamma is the preliminary or initial thought-moment. Upacára means proximate, because it is close to the appaná samádhi. It is at the anuloma or "adaptation" thought-moment that the mind qualifies itself for the final appaná. It is so called because it arises in conformity with appaná. This is followed by gotrabhú, the thought-moment that transcends the káma-plane. Gotrabhú means that which subdues (bhú) the Káma-lineage (gotra). All the thought-moments of this Javana process up to the gotrabhú moment are kámávacara thoughts. Immediately after this transitional stage of gotrabhú there arises only for a duration of one moment the appaná thought-moment that leads to ecstatic concentration. This consciousness belongs to the Rúpa-plane, and is termed the First Rúpa Jhána. In the case of an Arahat it is a kriyá citta, otherwise it is a kusala.
This consciousness lasts for one thought-moment and then subsides into the Bhavanga state.
The aspirant continues his concentration and develops in the foregoing manner the second, third, fourth, and fifth Jhánas.
The five Jhána vipákas are the corresponding Resultants of the five Morals. They are experienced in the Form sphere itself and not in the Káma-sphere. Kusala and Kiriyá Jhánas could be experienced in the Káma-sphere continuously even for a whole day.
The five factors, vitakka, vicára, píti, sukha, ekaggatá collectively found in the appaná consciousness, constitute what is technically known as Jhána. In the second Jhána the first factor is eliminated, in the third the first two are eliminated, in the fourth the first three are eliminated, while in the fifth even happiness is abandoned and is substituted by equanimity.
Sometimes these five Jhánas are treated as four, as mentioned in the Visuddhi-Magga. In that case the second Jhána consists of three constituents as both vitakka and vicára are eliminated at once.
38. Vitakka - is derived from "vi" + Ö "takk" to think. Generally the term is used in the sense of thinking or reflection. Here it is used in a technical sense. It is that which directs the concomitant states towards the object. (árammanam vitakketi sampayuttadhamme abhiniropeti' ti vitakko). Just as a king's favourite would conduct a villager to the palace, even so vitakka directs the mind towards the object.
Vitakka is an unmoral mental state which, when associated with a kusala or akusala citta, becomes either moral or immoral. A developed form of this vitakka is found in the first Jhána consciousness. A still more developed form of vitakka is found in the Path-consciousness (magga citta) as sammá-sankappa (Right thoughts). The vitakka of the Path-consciousness directs the mental states towards Nibbána and destroys micchá (wrong or evil) vitakka such as thoughts of sense-desire (káma), thoughts of hatred (vyápáda), and thoughts of cruelty (vihimsá). The vitakka of the Jhána consciousness temporarily inhibits sloth and torpor (thína-middha) one of the five Hindrances (nívarana).
Through continued practice the second Jhána is obtained by eliminating vitakka. When four Jhánas are taken into account instead of the five, the second Jhána is obtained by eliminating both vitakka and vicára at the same time.
39. Vicára is derived from "vi" + "car" to move or wander. Its usual equivalent is investigation. Here it is used in the sense of sustained application of the mind on the object. It temporarily inhibits doubts (vicikicchá).
According to the commentary vicára is that which moves around the object. Examination of the object is its characteristic. Vitakka is like the flying of a bee towards a flower. Vicára is like its buzzing around it. As Jhána factors they are correlates.
40. Píti is zest, joy, or pleasurable interest. It is derived from Ö "pi", to please, to delight. It is not a kind of feeling (vedaná) like sukha. It is, so to say, its precursor. Like the first two Jhána factors, (píti) is also a mental state found in both moral and immoral consciousness. Creating an interest in the object is its characteristic píti inhibits vyápáda, ill-will or aversion.
There are five kinds of píti:-
41. Sukha is bliss or happiness. It is a kind of pleasant feeling. It is opposed to uddhacca and kukkucca (restlessness and brooding). As vitakka is the precursor of vicára, so is píti the precursor of sukha.
The enjoyment of the desired object is its characteristic. It is like a king that enjoys a delicious dish.
Píti creates an interest in the object, while sukha enables one to enjoy the object.
Like the sight of an oasis to a weary traveler, is píti. Like drinking water and bathing therein, is sukha.
This mental sukha which should be differentiated from ahetuka káyika (physical) happiness is identical with somanassa. But it is a joy disconnected with material pleasures. This pleasurable feeling is the inevitable outcome of renouncing them (nirámisa sukha). Nibbánic bliss is yet far more subtle than Jhánic bliss. There is no feeling in experiencing the bliss of Nibbána. The total release from suffering (dukkhúpasama) is itself Nibbánic bliss. It is comparable to the "ease" of an invalid who is perfectly cured of a disease. It is a bliss of relief.
42. Upekkhá - literally, means seeing (ikkhati) impartially (upa = yuttito). It is viewing an object with a balanced mind, Atthasálini states: - "This is impartiality (majjhattam) in connection with the object, and implies a discriminative knowledge (paricchindanakam ńánam)".
This explanation applies strictly to upekkhá found in sobhana consciousness accompanied by wisdom. Upekkhá found in the akusalas and ahetukas is just neutral feeling, without the least trace of any discriminative knowledge. In the kámávacara sobhanas, too, there may arise that neutral feeling, as in the case of one hearing the Dhamma without any pleasurable interest, and also a subtle form of upekkhá that views the object with deliberate impartiality and discriminative knowledge, as in the case of a wise person who hears the Dhamma with a critical and impartial mind.
Upekkhá of the Jhána consciousness, in particular is of ethical and psychological importance. It certainly is not the ordinary kind of upekkhá, generally found in the akusala consciousness which comes naturally to an evil-doer. The Jhána upekkhá has been developed by a strong will-power. Realizing that pleasurable feeling is also gross, the Yogi eliminates it as he did the other three Jhána factors, and develops the more subtle and peaceful upekkhá. On the attainment of the fifth Jhána breathing ceases. As he has transcended both pain and pleasure by will-power, he is immune to pain too.
This upekkhá is a highly refined form of the ordinary tatramajjhattatá, even-mindedness, one of the moral mental states, latent in all types of sobhana consciousness.
In the Páli phrase - upekkhá satipárisuddhi - purity of mindfulness which comes of equanimity - it is the tatra-majjhattatá that is referred to. This is latent in the first four Jhánas too. In the fifth Jhána this tatra-majjhattatá is singled out and becomes highly refined. Both neutral feeling upekkhá vedaná) and equanimity that correspond to the one Páli term upekkhá are found in the fifth Jhána.
Thus there appear to be four kinds of upekkhá viz:- (1) just neutral feeling, found in the six akusala cittas, (2) sensitive passive neutral feeling (anubhavana upekkhá) found in the eight ahetuka sense-door consciousness (dvipańca-vińńána) (excluding káyavińńána), (3) intellectual upekkhá, found mostly in the two sobhana kriyá cittas, accompanied by knowledge, and sometimes in the two sobhana kusala cittas, accompanied by knowledge, (4) ethical upekkhá, found in all the sobhana cittas, especially in the fifth Jhána.
Brahmavihárupekkhá and sankhárupekkhá may be included in both intellectual and ethical upekkhá.
The first is equanimity amidst all vicissitudes of life. The second is neither attachment nor aversion with respect to all conditioned things.
Visuddhi-Magga enumerates ten kinds of upekkhá. See the Path of Purity -Vol. II pp. 184-186.
43. Ekaggatá (eka + agga + tá) lit., one-pointedness. This is a mental state common to all Jhánas. By sammá samádhi (Right Concentration) is meant this ekaggatá found in the Path-consciousness. Ekaggatá temporarily inhibits sensual desires.
(arúpávacara kusala cittáni-4)
(4) N'eva-sańńá-n'ásańńáyatana-kusalacittań c'ati.
Imáni cattári'pi Arúpávacara-kusalacittáni náma.
(arúpávacara vipáka cittáni)
(8) N'eva-sańńá-n'ásańńáyatana-vipákacittam c'ati.
Imáni cattári'pi arúpávacara-vipákacittáni náma.
(arúpávacara kriyá cittáni-4)
(12) n'eva-sańńá-n'ásańńáyatana-kriyácittań c'ati.
Imáni cattári'pi arúpávacara-kriyácittáni náma.
Icc' evam sabbathá'pi dvádasa arúpávacara-kusala-vipáka-kriyácittáni samattáni.
álambanappabhedhena - catudhá'ruppamánasam
Puńńapákakriyábhedá - puna dvádasadhá thitam.
(Formless-Sphere Consciousness - 12)
(Formless-Sphere Moral Consciousness - 4)
(1) Moral Jhána consciousness dwelling on the "Infinity of Space",
(2) Moral Jhána consciousness dwelling on the "Infinity of Consciousness",**
(3) Moral Jhána consciousness dwelling on "Nothingness",***
(4) Moral Jhána consciousness wherein "Perception neither is nor is not".
These are the four types of arúpa-jhána Moral consciousness.
*[ákásánańcáyatana = ákása + ananta + áyatana. Ananta + ya = anantya = anańca = end-lessness. ákása + anańca = ákásánańca + áyatana is used here in the sense of abode (adhitthánatthena)]
**[vińńánańcáyatana-vińńána + ananta + ya = vińńánanatya = vińńánańca]
***[ákińcańńáyatana-akińcanassa bhávo = ákińcańńam]
(Formless-sphere Resultant Consciousness - 4)
(5) Resultant Jhána-consciousness dwelling on the "Infinity of Space".
(6) Resultant Jhána-consciousness dwelling on the "Infinity of Consciousness",
(7) Resultant Jhána-consciousness dwelling on "Nothingness",
(8) Resultant Jhána-consciousness wherein "Perception neither is nor is not".
These are four types of arúpa-jhána Resultant consciousness.
(Formless-sphere Functional Consciousness - 4)
(9) Functional Jhána-consciousness dwelling on the "Infinity of Space".
(10) Functional Jhána-consciousness dwelling on the "Infinity of Consciousness".
(11) Functional Jhána-consciousness dwelling on "Nothingness" .
(12) Functional Jhána-consciousness wherein "Perception neither is nor is not".
These are the four types of arúpa-jhána Functional consciousness.
Thus end, in all, the twelve types of Arúpa Jhána Moral, Resultant, and Functional consciousness.*
* [Both Rúpa and Arúpa Cittas are collectively termed "Mahaggata" which literally, means 'great-gone-to', i.e., developed.]
Arúpa-jhána consciousness is fourfold, classified according to the objects. Again they stand at twelve according to Moral, Resultant, and Functional types.
44. Arúpa Jhána-
The Yogi who has developed the Rúpa Jhánas and who wishes to develop the Arúpa Jhánas now concentrates on the Patibhága Nimitta mentioned in the previous section. As he does so, a faint light, like a fire fly, issues from the Kasina object. He wills it to expand until it covers the whole space. Now he sees nothing but this light pervading everywhere. This developed space is not a reality but a mere concept. In Páli this space is called kasinugghátimákása (space issuing forth from the Kasina object). On this concept he concentrates thinking "ákáso ananto", 'Infinite is space', until he develops the first Arúpa Jhána-ákásánańcáyatana.
As in the case of the Rúpa Jhánas a thought-process, runs as follows:-
Parikamma thought-moment may or may not occur.
The Arúpa Jhána thought-moment occurs only for a moment, and then the consciousness lapses into Bhavanga consciousness.
Again he concentrates on the first Arúpa Jhána thinking "vińńánam anantam", 'Infinite is Consciousness' until he develops the second Arúpa Jhána - "vińńánańcáyatana".
To develop the third Arúpa Jhána - "ákińcańńáyatana" - the Yogi takes for his object the first Arúpa Jhána consciousness and thinks - 'Natthi kińci', "There is nothing whatever".
The fourth Arúpa Jhána consciousness is developed by taking the third Arúpa Jhána consciousness as the object. The third Arúpa Jhána is so subtle and refined that one cannot definitely say whether there is a consciousness or not. As he concentrates thus on the third consciousness he develops the fourth Jhána. Although the term "sańńá" is used here, vedaná, (feeling) and sankhárá, (mental states) are also included therein.
The five Rúpa Jhánas differ according to the Jhána factors. These four Arúpa Jhánas, on the other hand, differ according to the objects of concentration. The first and the third have two concepts (pańńatti). They are the concept of the 'infinity of space' and the concept of 'nothingness'. The second and the fourth Jhána consciousness have for their objects the first and the third Jhána respectively.
These four Arúpa Jhánas have their corresponding effects in the Arúpa spheres. The four Kriyá Jhánas are experienced only by Buddhas and Arahats.
In all these twelve Jhána Cittas are found the two Jhána factors - Upekkhá and ekaggatá - equanimity and one-pointedness that constitute the fifth Rúpa Jhána.
(lokuttara kusala cittáni-4)
(4) Arahatta-maggacittań c'ati.
Imáni cattári'pi Lokuttara-kusalacittáni náma.
(lokuttara vipáka cittáni-4)
(8) Arahatta-phalacittań c'ati.
Imáni cattári'pi Lokuttara-vipákacittáni náma.
Icce'vam sabbathá'pi attha Lokuttara-Kusala-Vipáka-cittáni samattáni.
Catumaggapphedhena-catudhá kusalam tathá
Pákam tassa phalattá'ti-atthadhá nuttaram matam
Dvádasákusalán'evam - kusalán' ekavísati
Chattims' eva vipákáni - kriyácittáni vísati.
Catupańńásadhá káme - rúpe pannaras'íraye
Cittáni dvádas' áruppe - atthadhá'n uttare tathá
(Supra Mundane Consciousness - 4)
(Moral Supra mundane Consciousness-4)
(1) Sotápatti Path-consciousness,
(2) Sakadágámí Path-consciousness,
(3) Anágámí Path-consciousness,
(4) Arahatta Path-consciousness.
These are the four types of Supra mundane Moral consciousness.
(Resultant Supra mundane Consciousness-4)
(5) Sotápatti Fruit-consciousness,
(6) Sakadágámí Fruit-consciousness,
(7) Anágámí Fruit-consciousness,
(8) Arahatta Fruit-consciousness.
These are the four types of Supra mundane Moral and Resultant consciousness. Thus end, in all, the eight types of supra mundane Moral and Resultant consciousness. Differing according to the four Paths, the Moral Consciousness is fourfold. So are the Resultants, being their fruits. The Supra mundane should be understood as eightfold.
Thus the "Immorals" are twelve, the "Morals" are twenty-one, the "Resultants" are thirty-six, the "Functionals" are twenty.
In the Sensuous Sphere, they say, are fifty-four types of consciousness, in the Form-Sphere are fifteen, in the Formless-Sphere are twelve, in the supra mundane are eight.
§ 10. Ittham'ekúna navuti - ppabhedham pana mánasam
Ekavísasatam v'átha - vibhajanti vicakkhaná.
Katham'ekúna navutividham cittam ekavísasatam hoti?
(2) Vicára-píti-sukh'ekaggatá-sahitam Dutiyajjhána-
(3) Píti-sukh'ekaggatá-sahitam Tatiyajjhána Sotápatti-maggacittam,
(4) Sukh'ekaggatá-sahitam Catutthajjhána Sotápatti-maggacittam,
Imáni pańca pi Sotápatti-maggacittáni náma.
Tathá Sakadágámí-magga, Anágámí-magga, Arahatta-maggacittań c'ati samavísati maggacittáni. Tathá phalacittáni c'ati samacattálísa Lokuttaracittáni bhavantí'ti.
Iti Abhidhammatthasangahe Cittasangahavibhágo náma pathamo paricchedo.
(121 Types of Consciousness)
§ 10. These different classes of consciousness, which thus number eighty-nine, the wise divide into one hundred and twenty-one.
How does consciousness which is analyzed into eighty-nine become one hundred and twenty-one?
1. The First Jhána Sotápatti Path-consciousness together with initial application, sustained application, joy, happiness, and one-pointedness,
2. The Second Jhána Sotápatti Path-consciousness together with sustained application, joy, happiness, and one-pointedness,
3. The Third Jhána Sotápatti Path-consciousness together with joy, happiness, and one-pointedness,
4. The Fourth Jhána Sotápatti Path-consciousness together with happiness and one-pointedness,
5. The Fifth Jhána Sotápatti Path-consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness.
These are the five types of Sotápatti Path-consciousness.
So are the Sakadágámí Path-consciousness, Anágámí Path-consciousness, and Arahatta Path-consciousness, making exactly twenty classes of consciousness. Similarly there are twenty classes of Fruit-consciousness. Thus there are forty types of supra mundane consciousness.
1. Dividing each (supra mundane) consciousness into five kinds according to different Jhána factors, the supra mundane consciousness, it is said, becomes forty.
2. As the Form-Sphere consciousness is treated as first Jhána consciousness and so on, even so is the supra mundane consciousness. The Formless-Sphere consciousness is included in the fifth Jhána.
3. Thus the Jhánas beginning from the first amount to eleven, they say. The last Jhána (i.e., the fifth ) totals twenty-three.
4. Thirty-seven are Morals, fifty-two are Resultants; thus the wise say that there are one-hundred and twenty-one types of consciousness.
Thus ends the first chapter of the Abhidhammattha Sangaha which deals with the Analysis of the Consciousness
45. The Realization of Nibbána.
The Yogi who wishes to realize Nibbána tries to understand things as they truly are. With his one-pointed mind he scrutinizes his self and, on due examination, discovers that his so-called "Ego-personality" is nothing but a mere composition of mind and matter - the former consisting of fleeting mental states that arise as a result of the senses coming into contact with the sense-stimuli, and the latter of forces and qualities that manifest them-selves in multifarious phenomena.
Having thus gained a correct view of the real nature of his self, freed from the false notion of an identical substance of mind and matter, he attempts to investigate the cause of this "Ego-personality." He realizes that everything worldly, himself not excluded, is conditioned by causes past or present, and that this existence is due to past ignorance (avijjá), craving (tanhá), attachment (upádána), Kamma, and physical food (áhára) of the present life. On account of these five causes this personality has arisen and as the past activities have conditioned the present, so the present will condition the future. Meditating thus, he transcends all doubts with regard to the past, present, and future (kankhá-vitarana-visuddhi). Thereupon he contemplates that all conditioned things are transient (anicca), subject to suffering (dukkha), and devoid of an immortal soul (anattá). Wherever he turns his eyes, he sees nothing but these three characteristics standing out in bold relief. He realizes that life is a mere flowing, continuous undivided movement. Neither in a celestial plane nor on earth does he find any genuine happiness, for every form of pleasure is only a prelude to pain. What is transient is therefore subject to suffering and where change and sorrow prevail there cannot be a permanent ego.
As he is thus absorbed in meditation, a day comes when, to his surprise, he witnesses an aura emanating from his body (obhása). He experiences an unprecedented pleasure, happiness, and quietude. He becomes evenminded and strenuous. His religious fervour increases, and mindfulness becomes perfect, and Insight extraordinarily keen.
Mistaking this advanced state of moral progress for Sainthood, chiefly owing to the presence of the aura, he develops a liking for this mental state. Soon the realization comes that these new developments are only obstacles to moral progress and he cultivates the 'purity of Knowledge' with regard to the 'Path' and 'Non-path' (maggámagga-ńánadassana visuddhi).
Perceiving the right path, he resumes his meditation on the arising (udaya ńána) and passing away (vaya ńána) of conditioned things. Of these two characteristics the latter becomes more impressed in his mind, because change is more conspicuous than becoming. Therefore he turns his attention to the contemplation of the dissolution of things (bhanga ńána). He perceives that both mind and matter, which constitute his personality, are in a state of constant flux, not remaining for two consecutive moments the same. To him then comes the knowledge that all dissolving things are fearful (bhaya ńána). The whole world appears to him like a pit of burning embers, a source of danger. Subsequently he reflects on the wretchedness and vanity (ádínava ńána) of the fearful world and feeling disgusted with it (nibbidá ńána), wishes to escape therefrom (muńcitukamyatá ńána).
With this object in view, he meditates again on the three characteristics (patisankhá ńána), and thereafter becomes completely indifferent to all conditioned things - having neither attachment nor aversion for any worldly object (sankhárupekkhá ńána). Reaching this point of mental culture, he takes for his object of special endeavour one of the three characteristics that appeals to him most, and intently keeps on developing insight in that particular direction, until that glorious day when, for the first time, he realizes Nibbána, his ultimate goal.
A Javana thought-process then runs as follows:
When there is no Parikamma thought-moment, in the case of an individual with keen Insight, there arise three Phala thought-moments.
These nine kinds of Insight, viz:- Udaya, Vaya, Bhanga, Bhaya, ádínava, Nibbidá, Muńcitukamyatá, Patisankhá, Sankhárupekkhá and Anuloma ńána are collectively called "Patipadá ńánadassana Visuddhi" - Purity of Knowledge and Vision as regards the Practice.
Insight found in this Supra mundane Path - Consciousness is known as Ńánadassana Visuddhi - Purity of Knowledge and Vision.
When the spiritual pilgrim realizes Nibbána for the first time, he is called a Sotápanna - One who has entered the Stream that leads to Nibbána for the first time. He is no more a worldling (puthujjana) but an Ariya. He eliminates three Fetters - namely, Self-illusion (sakkáya ditthi), Doubts (vicikicchá), and Adherence to Wrongful Rites and Ceremonies (sílabbata parámása). As he has, not eradicated all the Fetters that bind him to existence, he is reborn seven times at the most. In his subsequent birth he may or may not be aware of the fact that he is a Sotápanna. Nevertheless, he possesses the characteristics peculiar to such a Saint.
He gains implicit confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha, and would never violate any of the five Precepts. He is moreover absolved from states of woe, for he is destined to Enlightenment.
Summoning up fresh courage as a result of this distant glimpse of Nibbána, the Aryan pilgrim makes rapid progress, and perfecting his Insight becomes a Sakadágámí. (Once-Returner), by attenuating two other Fetters -namely, Sense-desire (kámarága) and Ill-will (patigha).
In this case, too, and in the case of the other two advanced stages of Sainthood, a javana thought-process runs as above, but the gotrabhú thought-moment is termed "vodána" (pure) as the individual is purified.
A Sakadágámí is reborn on earth only once in case he does not attain Arahatship in that life itself. It is interesting to note that the pilgrim who has attained the second stage of Sainthood can only weaken these two powerful fetters with which he is bound from a beginningless past. Occasionally he may be disturbed by thoughts of lust and anger to a slight extent.
It is by attaining the third stage of Sainthood, Anágámí (State of a Never-Returner), that he completely discards the above two Fetters. Thereafter he neither returns to this world nor does he seek birth in celestial realms, since he has rooted out the desire for sensual pleasures. After death he is reborn in the "Pure Abodes" (suddhávása) environment reserved for Anágámís and Arahats. There he attains Arahatship and lives till the end of his life.
Now the earnest pilgrim, encouraged by the unprecedented success of his endeavours, makes his final advance and destroying the remaining five Fetters - namely, Attachment to Form-sphere (rúparága), Attachment to Formless Sphere (arúpa rága), Conceit (mána), Restlessness (uddhacca), and Ignorance (avijjá), attains Arahatship, the final stage of Sainthood.
It will be noted that the Fetters have to be eradicated in four stages. The Path (magga) thought-moment occurs only once. The Fruit (phala) thought moment immediately follows. In the Supra mundane classes of consciousness the effect of the kusala cittas is instantaneous. Hence it is called akálika (of immediate fruit); whereas in the case of lokiya cittas effects may take place in this life, or in a subsequent life, or at any time till one attains Parinibbána.
In the Mundane consciousness Kamma is predominant, while in the Supra mundane pańńá or wisdom is predominant. Hence the four kusala lokuttara cittas are not treated as Kamma.
These eight cittas are called lokuttara. Here Loka means the Pańcupádana-kkhandha, the five Aggregates of Attachment. Uttara means that which transcends. Lokuttara therefore means that which transcends the world of Aggregates of Attachment. This definition strictly applies to the Four Paths. The Fruits are called Lokuttara because they have transcended the world of Aggregates of Attachment.
46. Forty Types of Lokuttara Cittas:-
One who has attained the First Jhána emerges from it and meditates on the impermanence, sorrowfulness, and soullessness of those mental states in that particular consciousness and ultimately realizes Nibbána. As the First Jhána was made the basis to realize Nibbána this lokuttara kusala thought is called-
This magga thought-moment is immediately followed by the phala thought-moment.
In the same manner the other four Jhánas are made the bases to realize Nibbána. Now, for each stage there are five Paths and five Fruits according to the different Jhánas. For the four stages there are forty classes of consciousness.