1. Udaya.-A brahmin of Sāvatthi. One day the Buddha came to his house and he filled the Buddha's bowl with the food prepared for his own use. Three days in succession the Buddha came, and Udaya, feeling annoyed, said to the Buddha: "A pertinacious and greedy man is the Samana Gotama that he comes again and again." The Buddha pointed out to him how, again and again, the furrow has to be sown to ensure a continuous supply of food, how over and over again the dairy-folk draw milk, and how again and again birth and death come to the slow-witted. At the end of the sermon both Udaya and his household became followers of the Buddha. S.i.173f; SA.i.199-200.
2. Udaya.-A brahmin, pupil of Bāvarī.
When his turn came to question the Buddha, he asked him to explain emancipation through higher knowledge and the destruction of avijjā. Because Udaya had already attained to the fourth jhāna, the Buddha gave his explanation in the terms of jhāna. At the end of the sermon Udaya realised the Truth. Sn.1006, 1105-11; SnA.ii.599-600.
3. Udaya (or Udayana).-A prince of Hamsavati. It was to him and to Brahmadeva, that Tissa Buddha preached his first sermon in the Deer Park at Yasavati. He later became one of the two chief disciples of Tissa Buddha. Bu.xviii.21; J.i.40; BuA.189.
4. Udaya.-The Bodhisatta born as king of Benares. In his previous birth he had been a servant of Suciparivāra (q.v.). On fast days it was the custom in Suciparivāra's house for everyone, even down to the cowherds, to observe the uposatha, but this servant, being new to the place, was not aware of this. He went to work early in the morning and returned late in the evening. When he discovered that all the others were keeping the fast he refused to touch any food and, as a result, died the same night. Just before death he saw the king of Benares passing in procession with great splendour, and felt a desire for royalty. He was therefore born as the son of the king of Benares and was named Udaya. In due course he became king, and one day, having seen Addhamāsaka (q.v.) and learnt his story, he gave him half his kingdom. Later, when Addhamāsaka confessed to him the evil idea that had passed through his mind of killing the king in order to gain the whole kingdom, Udaya, realising the wickedness of desire, renounced the kingdom and became an ascetic in the Himālaya. When leaving the throne he uttered a stanza containing a riddle which was ultimately solved by Gangamāla (q.v.). J.iii.444ff.
5. Udaya.-King of Ceylon, Udaya I. (A.C. 792-797), also called Dappula. He was the son of Mahinda II. and his wife was the clever Senā. He had several children, among them Devā, who was given in marriage to Mahinda, son of the ādipāda Dāthāsiva of Rohana. For details of his reign see Cv.xlix.1ff; also Cv. Trs.i.126, n.1.
6. Udaya.-A brother of Sena I. and his ādipāda. During the king's absence from the capital, he married Nālā, daughter of his maternal uncle, and took her to Pulatthinagara, but the king forgave him and later, when his elder brother Mahinda died, made him Mahādipāda, sending him as ruler of the Southern Province. Soon after, however, Udaya fell ill and died (Cv.l.6, 8, 44, 45). According to an inscription, he had a son who, under Kassapa IV., became Mahālekhaka. See Cv. Trs.i.138, n.3 and 142, n.1.
7. Udaya.-Son of Kittaggabodhi, ruler of Rohana in the time of Sena I. Cv.l.56.
8. Udaya.-King of Ceylon, Udaya II. (A.C. 885-896), a younger brother of Sena II. and afterwards his yuvarāja (Cv.li.63, 90ff; Cv.Trs.i.156, n.4). He succeeded Sena II. and reigned eleven years. During his reign the province of Rohana was brought once more under the rule of the king.
9. Udaya.-King of Ceylon, Udaya III. (A.C. 934-937). He was the son of Mahinda, a younger brother of Sena II., and his mother was Kittī or Kittā. He was first yuvarāja of Dappula IV. and later succeeded him as king. Cv.liii.4, 13ff; Cv.Trs.i.172, n.5 and 174, n.6.
10. Udaya.-King of Ceylon, Udaya IV. (A.C. 945-953). He was a friend of Sena III. (perhaps his younger brother, see Ep. Zey.ii.59) and was his yuvarāja. On Sena's death, Udaya succeeded him and reigned for eight years. During his reign the Colas invaded Ceylon, but were repulsed (Cv.liii.28, 39ff; also Cv.Trs.i.177, n.2). Among his religious activities was the erection of the Manipāsāda, which, however, he could not complete. Cv.liv.48.
11. Udaya.-Younger brother and yuvarāja of Sena V. In Sena's quarrel with his mother, Udaya took the side of the latter. Cv.liv.58, 63.
12. Udaya.-Senāpati of Sena V. He was appointed by the king while the real Senāpati was away in the border country. When the latter heard of the appointment, he marched against the king and defeated his forces. Sena was forced to come to terms with the Senāpati and banish Udaya from the country. Cv.liv.61, 68.
13. Udaya.-See also Udāyī-bhadda.