An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XXIII

Kitaka - Verbal Derivatives

Words formed by adding suffixes to verbal roots are called kitaka.

There are several such suffixes which are used in various senses.

A few of the important ones are given below:

1. "A" is affixed to roots to form masculine abstract nouns, to denote agent, instrument, etc. The initial vowel undergoes vuddhi substitute.

Examples:-
Bhč + a = bhava becoming, existence
    = bhava condition
Budha + a = bodha understanding
Dusa + a = dosa anger, hatred
Ji + a = jaya victory
Kh“ + a = khaya destruction
Lubha + a = lobha covetousness, greed, lust
Muha + a = moha ignorance, delusion
Pata + a = pŒta fall
Pada + a = pŒda foot (by which one walks)
Ruja + a = roga disease

2. "A" is also affixed to roots when the words forming their objects are prefixed to them.

The verbal derivative thus formed is afterwards compounded with the preceding word. The initial vowel of the root sometimes undergoes vuddhi substitute.

Examples:-
Annaµ + dŒ + a = annada
      giver of food
Balaµ + dŒ + a = balada
      strength-giver
Dhammaµ + dhara + a = dhammadhara
      one versed in the Doctrine
Dinaµ + kara + a = dinakara
      maker of the day, (sun)
Kumbhaµ + kara + a = kumbhakŒra
      potter
Rathaµ + kara + a = rathakŒra
      coach-builder
MŒlŒ + kara + a = mŒlŒkŒra
      garland-maker

3. "A" is also added to roots when words other than their objects are prefixed to them. Sometimes the final syllable is dropped.

Examples:-
PŒdena + pŒ + a = pŒdapa
      tree (lit. drinking with the foot)
Bhujena + gamu + a = bhujaga
      snake (lit. going zigzag)
Kammato + jana + a = kammaja
      action-born
Vane + cara + a = vanacara
      forest-wanderer
VŒrimhi + jana + a = vŒrija
      water-born, aquatic

4. In the case of "aka" the initial vowel of the root frequently undergoes vuddhi substitute, and monosyllabic roots ending in "a" take an augment "y", and those ending in " i", and "u" change into aya and ava respectively before the suffix.

"Aka" and "tu" are affixed to roots to denote the agent of the action.

In the case of "tu" the initial vowel of monosyllabic roots undergoes viuddhi substitute and the final syllable of others are sometimes changed into "t".

Examples:-
+ aka = dŒyaka   giver, supporter
Ni + aka = nŒyaka   leader
Sa + aka = sŒvaka   hearer, disciple
Bhuji + aka = bhojaka   eater
Gamu + aka = gamaka   goer
Jana + aka = Janaka   father (producer)
Kara + aka = kŒraka   doer
         
+ tu = dŒtu   giver
Ni + tu = netu   leader
Su + tu = sotu   hearer
Œ + tu = Œtu   knower
Bhara + tu = bhattu   husband (supporter)
Gamu + tu = gantu*   goer
Kara + tu = kattu   doer
VŒcŒ + tu = vattu   speaker

*Here "m" is changed into "n".

5. "Ana" and "ti" are affixed to roots to form neuter and feminine abstract nouns respectively.

Examples:-
+ ana = dŒna   giving, alms
N“ + ana = nayana   leading
Su + ana = savana   hearing
Gamu + ana = gamana   going
Kara + aöa = karaöa   doing
Mara (to die) + ana = maraöana   death, dying

Before "ti" sometimes the final syllable of the root is dropped, and at times it is changed into "t".

Gamu + ti = gati   gait, condition of birth
G“ (to sing) + ti = g“ti   song
Muca + ti = mutti   release
+ ti = p“ti   drinking
Ramu (to sport) + ti = rati   sport, attachment
Sara (to remember) + ti = sati   recollection, memory
Su + ti = suti   hearing
é + ti = Źhiti   state
Thu (to praise) + ti = thuti   praise

6. "An“ya" and "ya" are affixed to roots in the sense of ought to be, fit to be, fit for, worthy of. If the root ends in "a" and "Œ", the suffix "ya" is changed into "eyya".

Examples:-
Kara + an“ya = karaö“ya*
ought to be done
+ an“ya = pŒn“ya
fit to be drunk, (water)
Pčja + an“ya = pčjan“ya
worthy of offering
Su + an“ya = savan“ya
fit to be heard
+ ya + eyya = deyya
fit to be given
GŒha + ya = (gahya, becomes) gayha
fit to be taken
„Œ + ya + eyya = eyya
ought to be known, should be understood
+ ya + eyya = peyya
ought to be drunk, drinkable

*After "r" the dental "n" is changed into cerebral "ö".

Some irregular forms:-
Bhuji + ya = bhojja   fit to be eaten, edible
Mada + ya = majja   fit for intoxication, intoxicating
KhŒda + ya = khajja   edible
Garaha + ya = gŒrayha   blamable
Vada + ya = vajja   fit to be said, (fault)
Yuja + ya = yogga   suitable

7. " I" and "ana" are affixed to roots in the sense of disposed to, in the habit of. The initial vowel undergoes vuddhi substitute.

Examples:-
Brahmaµ cara + “ = brahmacŒr“
one who is in the habit of leading a noble life (celibate)
Dhammaµ vada + “ = dhammavŒd“
one who is in the habit of expounding the Doctrine
Saccaµ vada + “ = saccavŒd“
one who is disposed to speak the truth, truthful
SŒdhu s“la + “ = sŒdhusŒl“
good-natured one
PŒpa kara + “ = pŒpakŒr“
evil-doer, one who is disposed to evil
Kudha + ana = kodhana
disposed to anger, angry
BhŒsa + ana = bhŒsana
garrulous
Ghusa + ana = ghosana
sounding, noisy
Kampa + ana = kampana
shaky

8. The infinitives, which are also treated as verbal derivatives formed by adding "tuµ" to the roots, are compounded with "kama" in the sense of 'desirous of ', 'wishing' by dropping their niggahita.

The Desideratives thus formed are declined like compound words.

Examples:-
Bhujituµ kŒma = bhujitukŒma
  wishing to eat
  bhujitukŒmena
  by one who wishes to eat
  bhujitukŒmassa
  to one who wishes to eat
Gantuµ kŒma = gantukŒma
  desirous of going, wishing to go
Pacituµ kŒma = pacitukŒma
  wishing to cook
KŒtuµ kŒma = kattukŒma
  wishing to do

It should be understood that infinitives and all kinds of participles which have already been dealt with, are also treated as kitakas.


Exercise 23-A

1. "Kiµ dado balado hoti - kiµ dado hoti vaööado.
Kiµ dado sukhado hoti - kiµ dado hoti cakkhudo?"
2. "Annado balado hoti - vatthado hoti vaööado
YŒnado sukhado hoti - d“pado hoti cakkhudo."
3. Maggo atthi maggiko n'atthi, gamanaµ atthi
gamako n'atthi, kammaµ atthi kŒrako na'tthi.
4. "Dhammap“ti sukhaµ seti."
5. "DhammacŒr“ sukhaµ seti - asmiµ loke paramhi ca."
6. "SabbapŒpassa akaraöaµ."
7. "PŒpŒnaµ akaraöaµ sukhaµ."
8. SabbadŒnaµ dhammadŒnaµ jinŒti
Sabbaµ rasaµ dhammarasaµ jinŒti,
Sabbaµ ratiµ dhammaratiµ jinŒti,
Taöhakkhayo sabbadukkhaµ janŒti."
9. Yo sŒvako kŒyena vŒ vŒcŒya vŒ cetasŒ vŒ kici'pi pŒpaµ kammaµ na karoti so hoti Dhammadharo, DhammavŒd“.
10. Tava thutiyŒ me payojanaµ n'atthi.
11. SaccavŒdino sadŒ pčjan“yŒ honti.
12. Sampattivipatt“su akampanacitto hohi.
13. SŒdhus“l“ sŒvakŒ dhammasavanatthŒya gantukŒmŒ nagarato nikkhamiµsu.
14. BhŒsanadŒrakŒ paöitehi gŒrayhŒ honti.

Exercise 23-B

1. By the destruction of lust, hatred and ignorance one obtains deliverance.
2. This potter is making iron vessels.
3. Evil-doers and well-doers should be known by their actions.
4. The expounders of the Doctrine should be reverenced by all.
5. Of what use is his praise to the disciples?
6. I do not know his going or coming.
7. There is medicine for bodily diseases but not for mental diseases.
8. The coach-builder wishing to make a chariot felled* the tallest tree in his garden.
9. Who knows that our death will come tomorrow.
10. By his gait I know that he is a good-natured person.
11. The speech of truthful persons should be heard.
12. This garland-maker is not an evil-doer.
13. No evil action should be done in thought, word, or deed by expounders of Truth.
14. The supporters wishing to go to hear the Doctrine approached the disciples who were reverenced by them.

*Use the causal of 'pata', to fall (pŒtesi).