An Elementary Pali Course
Kitaka - Verbal Derivatives
Words formed by adding suffixes to verbal roots are called kitaka.
There are several such suffixes which are used in various senses.
A few of the important ones are given below:
1. "A" is affixed to roots to form masculine abstract nouns, to denote agent, instrument, etc. The initial vowel undergoes vuddhi substitute.
|Bhč||+ a||= bhava||becoming, existence|
|Budha||+ a||= bodha||understanding|
|Dusa||+ a||= dosa||anger, hatred|
|Ji||+ a||= jaya||victory|
|Kh“||+ a||= khaya||destruction|
|Lubha||+ a||= lobha||covetousness, greed, lust|
|Muha||+ a||= moha||ignorance, delusion|
|Pata||+ a||= pta||fall|
|Pada||+ a||= pda||foot (by which one walks)|
|Ruja||+ a||= roga||disease|
2. "A" is also affixed to roots when the words forming their objects are prefixed to them.
The verbal derivative thus formed is afterwards compounded with the preceding word. The initial vowel of the root sometimes undergoes vuddhi substitute.
|Annaµ||+ d||+ a =||annada|
|giver of food|
|Balaµ||+ d||+ a =||balada|
|Dhammaµ||+ dhara||+ a =||dhammadhara|
|one versed in the Doctrine|
|Dinaµ||+ kara||+ a =||dinakara|
|maker of the day, (sun)|
|Kumbhaµ||+ kara||+ a =||kumbhakra|
|Rathaµ||+ kara||+ a =||rathakra|
|Ml||+ kara||+ a =||mlkra|
3. "A" is also added to roots when words other than their objects are prefixed to them. Sometimes the final syllable is dropped.
|Pdena||+ p||+ a =||pdapa|
|tree (lit. drinking with the foot)|
|Bhujena||+ gamu||+ a =||bhujaga|
|snake (lit. going zigzag)|
|Kammato||+ jana||+ a =||kammaja|
|Vane||+ cara||+ a =||vanacara|
|Vrimhi||+ jana||+ a =||vrija|
4. In the case of "aka" the initial vowel of the root frequently undergoes vuddhi substitute, and monosyllabic roots ending in "a" take an augment "y", and those ending in " i", and "u" change into aya and ava respectively before the suffix.
"Aka" and "tu" are affixed to roots to denote the agent of the action.
In the case of "tu" the initial vowel of monosyllabic roots undergoes viuddhi substitute and the final syllable of others are sometimes changed into "t".
|D||+ aka||= dyaka||giver, supporter|
|Ni||+ aka||= nyaka||leader|
|Sa||+ aka||= svaka||hearer, disciple|
|Bhuji||+ aka||= bhojaka||eater|
|Gamu||+ aka||= gamaka||goer|
|Jana||+ aka||= Janaka||father (producer)|
|Kara||+ aka||= kraka||doer|
|D||+ tu||= dtu||giver|
|Ni||+ tu||= netu||leader|
|Su||+ tu||= sotu||hearer|
|||+ tu||= tu||knower|
|Bhara||+ tu||= bhattu||husband (supporter)|
|Gamu||+ tu||= gantu*||goer|
|Kara||+ tu||= kattu||doer|
|Vc||+ tu||= vattu||speaker|
*Here "m" is changed into "n".
5. "Ana" and "ti" are affixed to roots to form neuter and feminine abstract nouns respectively.
|D||+ ana||= dna||giving, alms|
|N“||+ ana||= nayana||leading|
|Su||+ ana||= savana||hearing|
|Gamu||+ ana||= gamana||going|
|Kara||+ aöa||= karaöa||doing|
|Mara (to die)||+ ana||= maraöana||death, dying|
Before "ti" sometimes the final syllable of the root is dropped, and at times it is changed into "t".
|Gamu||+ ti||= gati||gait, condition of birth|
|G“ (to sing)||+ ti||= g“ti||song|
|Muca||+ ti||= mutti||release|
|P||+ ti||= p“ti||drinking|
|Ramu (to sport)||+ ti||= rati||sport, attachment|
|Sara (to remember)||+ ti||= sati||recollection, memory|
|Su||+ ti||= suti||hearing|
|éh||+ ti||= Źhiti||state|
|Thu (to praise)||+ ti||= thuti||praise|
6. "An“ya" and "ya" are affixed to roots in the sense of ought to be, fit to be, fit for, worthy of. If the root ends in "a" and "", the suffix "ya" is changed into "eyya".
|Kara||+ an“ya =||karaö“ya*|
|ought to be done|
|P||+ an“ya =||pn“ya|
|fit to be drunk, (water)|
|Pčja||+ an“ya =||pčjan“ya|
|worthy of offering|
|Su||+ an“ya =||savan“ya|
|fit to be heard|
|D||+ ya||+ eyya =||deyya|
|fit to be given|
|Gha||+ ya =||(gahya, becomes) gayha|
|fit to be taken|
|||+ ya||+ eyya =||eyya|
|ought to be known, should be understood|
|P||+ ya||+ eyya =||peyya|
|ought to be drunk, drinkable|
*After "r" the dental "n" is changed into cerebral "ö".
|Some irregular forms:-|
|Bhuji||+ ya||= bhojja||fit to be eaten, edible|
|Mada||+ ya||= majja||fit for intoxication, intoxicating|
|Khda||+ ya||= khajja||edible|
|Garaha||+ ya||= grayha||blamable|
|Vada||+ ya||= vajja||fit to be said, (fault)|
|Yuja||+ ya||= yogga||suitable|
7. " I" and "ana" are affixed to roots in the sense of disposed to, in the habit of. The initial vowel undergoes vuddhi substitute.
|Brahmaµ cara||+ “||= brahmacr“|
|one who is in the habit of leading a noble life (celibate)|
|Dhammaµ vada||+ “||= dhammavd“|
|one who is in the habit of expounding the Doctrine|
|Saccaµ vada||+ “||= saccavd“|
|one who is disposed to speak the truth, truthful|
|Sdhu s“la||+ “||= sdhusl“|
|Ppa kara||+ “||= ppakr“|
|evil-doer, one who is disposed to evil|
|Kudha||+ ana||= kodhana|
|disposed to anger, angry|
|Bhsa||+ ana||= bhsana|
|Ghusa||+ ana||= ghosana|
|Kampa||+ ana||= kampana|
8. The infinitives, which are also treated as verbal derivatives formed by adding "tuµ" to the roots, are compounded with "kama" in the sense of 'desirous of ', 'wishing' by dropping their niggahita.
The Desideratives thus formed are declined like compound words.
|Bhujituµ kma =||bhujitukma|
|wishing to eat|
|by one who wishes to eat|
|to one who wishes to eat|
|Gantuµ kma =||gantukma|
|desirous of going, wishing to go|
|Pacituµ kma =||pacitukma|
|wishing to cook|
|Ktuµ kma =||kattukma|
|wishing to do|
It should be understood that infinitives and all kinds of participles which have already been dealt with, are also treated as kitakas.
|1.||"Kiµ dado balado hoti -
kiµ dado hoti vaööado.
Kiµ dado sukhado hoti - kiµ dado hoti cakkhudo?"
|2.||"Annado balado hoti -
vatthado hoti vaööado
Ynado sukhado hoti - d“pado hoti cakkhudo."
|3.||Maggo atthi maggiko n'atthi,
gamako n'atthi, kammaµ atthi krako na'tthi.
|4.||"Dhammap“ti sukhaµ seti."|
|5.||"Dhammacr“ sukhaµ seti - asmiµ loke paramhi ca."|
|7.||"Ppnaµ akaraöaµ sukhaµ."|
Sabbaµ rasaµ dhammarasaµ jinti,
Sabbaµ ratiµ dhammaratiµ jinti,
Taöhakkhayo sabbadukkhaµ janti."
|9.||Yo svako kyena v vcya v cetas v kici'pi ppaµ kammaµ na karoti so hoti Dhammadharo, Dhammavd“.|
|10.||Tava thutiy me payojanaµ n'atthi.|
|11.||Saccavdino sad pčjan“y honti.|
|12.||Sampattivipatt“su akampanacitto hohi.|
|13.||Sdhus“l“ svak dhammasavanatthya gantukm nagarato nikkhamiµsu.|
|14.||Bhsanadrak paöitehi grayh honti.|
|1.||By the destruction of lust, hatred and ignorance one obtains deliverance.|
|2.||This potter is making iron vessels.|
|3.||Evil-doers and well-doers should be known by their actions.|
|4.||The expounders of the Doctrine should be reverenced by all.|
|5.||Of what use is his praise to the disciples?|
|6.||I do not know his going or coming.|
|7.||There is medicine for bodily diseases but not for mental diseases.|
|8.||The coach-builder wishing to make a chariot felled* the tallest tree in his garden.|
|9.||Who knows that our death will come tomorrow.|
|10.||By his gait I know that he is a good-natured person.|
|11.||The speech of truthful persons should be heard.|
|12.||This garland-maker is not an evil-doer.|
|13.||No evil action should be done in thought, word, or deed by expounders of Truth.|
|14.||The supporters wishing to go to hear the Doctrine approached the disciples who were reverenced by them.|
*Use the causal of 'pata', to fall (ptesi).