An Elementary Pali Course
Taddhita - Nominal Derivatives
Words formed by adding suffixes to the bases of substantives, primary or derived from roots, adjectives, etc. are called Taddhita.
Some of these derivatives are treated as nouns and adjectives and are declined accordingly. A few others are treated as indeclinables.
There are many such suffixes which are used in various senses. The following are the principal ones of these :-
1. "A" is used to signify possession, pedigree, etc.
In this case the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute.
Pa + a = paa (m. Nom. Sing. pao), he who has wisdom, or wise.
Saddh + a = saddha (m. Nom. Sing. saddho), he who has faith, or faithful; devotional.
VasiÊÊh + a = VsiÊÊha - vsiÊÊho, son of VasiÊÊha; vsiÊÊh´, daughter of VasiÊÊha; vsiÊÊhaµ, VasiÊÊha clan.
2. "Ika*" is used to signify 'pertaining to', 'mixed with', 'crossing', 'versed in', 'engaged in', etc.
In this case too the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute.
Dhamma + ika = dhammika, righteous.
Ky + ika = kyika, bodily
Nagara + ika = ngarika, pertaining to the city, i.e., urban.
Loka + ika = lokika, worldly
Loöa + ika = loöika, mixed with salt
Nv + ika = nvika, navigator, he who crosses in a ship
Magga + ika = maggika, traveller
Vinaya + ika = venayika, he who studies vinaya
Bhaögra + ika = bhaögrika, treasurer
*English: -ish and -ic, as in hellish or heroic.
3. "Ima" and "iya" are also used to signify 'pertaining to'.
Anta + ima = antima, last
Majjha + ima = majjhima, middle, central
Loka + iya = lokiya, worldly
4. "I", "ika", "ima", "mantu", "vantu", and "v´" are used to signify possession.
Daö¶a + ´ = daö¶´, he who has a stick
Chatta + ´ = chatt´, he who has an umbrella
Putta + ika = puttika, he who has sons
Daö¶a + ika = daö¶ika, he who has a stick
Putta + ima = puttima, he who has sons
Dhiti + mantu = dhitimantu, courageous
Bandhu + mantu = bandhumantu, he who has relatives
Guöa + vantu = guöavantu, virtuous
Medh + v´ = medhv´, he who has wisdom
5. "Maya" is used in the sense of 'made of'.
Aya + maya = ayomaya, made of iron
Dru + maya = drumaya, wooden
Mana + maya = manomaya*, mental
Rajata + maya = rajatamaya, made of silver
Suvaööa + maya = suvaööamaya, or sovaööamaya, golden
*Mana and other words similarly declined, when combined with another word or with the suffix maya, change their final vowel "a" into "o". See lesson XIX.
6. "T" is used ta signify collection, state, or quality. The derivatives thus formed are always in the feminine.
Gma + t = gmat, collection of villages
Jana + t = janat, multitude
Bla + t = blat, ignorance, childhood
Dhamma + t = dhammat, state of things, nature
Manussa + t = manussat, manhood
7. "Tta*" and "ya" are also used to signify state or quality**. The derivatives thus formed are in the neuter.
In the case of "ya" the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute.
Aroga + ya = rogya, health, freedom from disease
Bla + ya = blya, ignorance, childhood
+ tta = blatta, ignorance
Manussa + tta = manussatta, manhood
N´la + tta = n´latta, blueness
Paö¶ita + ya = Pö¶itya, and Paö¶icca, wisdom
*Saµskrt, tvam; English "dom", Kingdom.
**Sometimes the word "bhva", which means nature or state, is combined with other words to express state or quality, e.g., purisabhva, manhood; itthibhva, womanhood, etc.
8. "Tara" and " iya" are used to express the comparative degree, and "tama" and "iÊÊha", the superlative degree.
|Ppa||evil,||ppatara, ppiya||ppatama, ppiÊÊha|
|Appa||kaniya, younger||kaniÊÊha, youngest|
|Pasattha||good||seyya, better||seÊÊha, best|
9. "Ka" is affixed to numerals to denote a group.
Eka + ka = ekaka, one-group; unit; groups of singles
Dvi + ka = dvika, two-group; dyad ; twofold group
Catu + ka = catukka, four-group; tetrad ; threefold group
These derivatives take either the masculine or the neuter.
10. "Kkhattuµ" is affixed to numerals to denote the number of times.
Eka + kkhattuµ = ekakkhattuµ, once
Dvi + kkhattuµ = dvikkhattuµ, twice
11. "Dh" is affixed to numerals, "so" and "th" to others, to form distributive adverbs.
Eka + dh = ekadh, in one way
Paca + dh = pacadh, in five ways, fivefold
Bahu + dh = bahudh, in many ways, manifold
Attha + so = atthaso, according to the meaning
Sabba + so = sabbaso, in every way
Aa + th = aath, in another way, differently
Sabba + th = sabbath, in every way
These last two classes of derivatives are treated as declinables.
It should be understood that some comparatives and superlatives are formed by prefixing ati, and at´va or ativiya to the positive respectively.
|1.||"Rj bhavatu dhammiko."|
|2.||"Socati puttehi puttim."|
|3.||Tava paö¶iccena mama kiµ payojanaµ?|
|4.||Ahaµ mama mtpitare sad dvikkhattuµ vandmi.|
|5.||Manussattam'pi labhitv kasm tumhe puaµ na karotha?|
|6.||Eso saddho dyako sabbad s´laµ samm rakkhati.|
|7.||Sabbesu devamanussesu samm-sambuddho pana seÊÊho hoti.|
|8.||lmesaµ dvinnaµ svknaµ ayaµ pana jeyyo seyyo ca hoti.|
|9.||Tasmiµ paöe vnijo, drumayabhaöni na vikkiöti.|
|10.||Yo saddho v pao v yaµ yaµ desaµ gacchati so tatth'eva pèjito hoti.|
|11.||Mahrao kaniÊÊhaputto imasmiµ raÊÊhe seÊÊharjabhaögriko hoti.|
|12.||Amhkaµ antevsiknaµ kaöiyo pana venayiko, kaniÊÊho pana bhidhammiko.|
|13.||Lokiyajan puappaµ katv sugatiduggat´su uppajjitv bahudh kyikasukhadukkhaµ bhujanti.|
|14.||"Tesaµ saccena s´lena -
Te pi tvaµ anurakkhantu - rogyena sukhena ca."
|1.||What is the good of your manhood if you do no good to others?|
|2.||Every bodily deed is mind-made.|
|3.||His eldest brother is the most virtuous boy in the school.|
|4.||The great multitude sat in the hall in different ways.|
|5.||Health is the best wealth.|
|6.||It is a Buddha who understands the nature of a Buddha in every way.|
|7.||I went to see the treasurer several times.|
|8.||All ships are not made of iron.|
|9.||What is the use of worldly goods to monks and nuns?|
|10.||He advised me in every way to strive to attain Buddhahood.|
|11.||Twice I wrote to him, but he did not send a reply even once.|
|12.||My youngest brother is the wisest of all.|
|13.||The righteous and wise men are very few.|
|14.||Wooden beds are better than iron* beds.|
*Use the Ablative case.