An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XXI

Indeclinables (Avyaya)

An Avyaya is that whose form remains the same in all genders, numbers, and cases, without undergoing any change.

There are two kinds of Avyayas, viz:- Upasagga and NipŒta.

An Upasagga (prefix) is an indeclinable word which possesses an independent meaning and which, when prefixed to substantives and verbs, usually modifies their original sense.

These Upasaggas correspond to prefixes in Latin and sometimes to prepositions in English.

A NipŒta is an indeclinable word which may stand either before or after another word.

These NipŒtas comprise particles, adverbs, conjunctions and interjections in English.

Prefixes
There are twenty Upasaggas or prefixes in PŒĀi.

1. ī up to, until, as far as, around, reversing to
  īpabbata as far as the rock
  īgacchati comes, gacchati, goes
  īharati brings, harati, carries
     
2. Abhi to, unto, forward, towards, high, great, special, over
  Abhigacchati goes near to, goes forward
  Abhikkhamat goes forward
  Abhidhamma higher Doctrine
  Abhi––Œ higher knowledge, special knowledge
  AbhijŒnŒti perceives (jŒnati: knows)
  Abhibhavati overcomes, bhavati, is
  Abhimukha facing towards
  Abhimaŗgala special or high festival
     
3. Adhi in, upon, above, over, great, excessive
  Adhivasati dwells in
  Adhisessati will lie upon
  Adhitiµµhati stands on, stands above
  Adhibhč lord, master (bhč: to be)
  Adhibhčta overcome, mastered
  Adhis“la higher morality
  Adhis“ta very cold
  Adhigacchati enters upon, attains, acquires
     
4. Anu after, like, behind, along, under, sub, according to
  Anugacchati goes after, follows
  AnunŒyaka sub-chief
  AnurŒjŒ following king, successor
  Anulomato in accordance with
     
5. Apa away, from, away from
  Apa sŒlŒya from the hall
  Apagacchati goes away
  ApavŒda blame, abuse (vŒda: speech)
     
6. Api sometimes contracted to "pi", over, near to
  ApidhŒna, pidhŒna, pidahana lid, cover
     
7. Ati very, over, beyond, excessive
  Atisundara very beautiful
  Atikkamati goes beyond, transgresses
  Atigacchati overcomes
     
8. Ava often contracted to "o", down, away, off, around
  Avakkamati, okkamati steps down, descends
  Avaharati takes away, removes
  AvajŒnŒti despises, jaanaati, knows
  Avama––ati looks down upon
  Avabodha full knowledge
  Avacarati goes through, traverses
     
9. Du bad, difficult
  Duggati evil state
  Duddama difficult to tame
  Duranubodha difficult of comprehension
     
10. Ni away, in, into, down, free from, down wards, without, great
  Niggacchati goes away
  Nikkhamati goes away, departs
  Nidahati lays aside
  NirŒhŒra without food
  Nicaya great collection, accumulation
  Nigama market town
  Nikhaöati digs into, bury
  Nivattati ceases, turns back
     
11. N“ away, without, outwards, out of
  N“harati takes away, draws out
  N“roga healthy, without disease
  N“rasa sapless, tasteless
     
12. Pa forward, forth, in, chief
  Pabala very strong
  PayŒti goes forth
  Pakkhipati throws in, puts in
  Pakkamati sets out, goes away
     
13. ParΠaway, aside, back, opposed to
  ParŒbhava decline, ruin (lit. away from being)
  ParŒjaya defeat (lit. away from, or opposed to, victory)
  Parakkamati puts forth one's strength, strives
     
14. Pari around, about, complete
  Paridahati puts on
  ParidhŒvati runs about
  Parikkhipati throws around, surround
  Parisuddha complete purity
     
15. Pati (frequently changed into "paŹi") again, against, towards, back
  PaŹikkamati steps backwards retreats
  PaŹideti gives in return
  PaŹivadati answers (lit. speaks in return)
  PaŹilomaµ backwards
  PaŹisotaµ against the stream
  Patirčpaµ counterfeit, suitable
  PatirŒja hostile king
  Patilekhana letter in reply
     
16. Saµ with, together, self
  Sambuddha self enlightened
  SamŒgacchati comes together, assembles
  Sameti meets together
  Saµharati collects, folds up
  Saŗkhipati condenses, (lit. throws together)
  Saŗgaha collection
  Sammukha face to face with
     
17. Su good, well, thoroughly, excellent
  Sugati happy state
  Sujana good man
  Sudesita well-preached
  SubhŒvita thoroughly practised
  Sudubbala very weak
  Sukara easy to do
     
18. U up, above, away
  Uggacchati rises
  Ukkhipati throws upwards
  Ucchindati cuts off
  Uttarati comes up, ascends
  Udaya rise, beginning
     
19. Upa near, towards, next, by the side of, sub, below, less, strong
  Upagacchati goes near
  UpasŒkhŒ minor branch
  UpadhŒvati runs up to
  UparŒjŒ viceroy
  Upakaööa into the ear
  Upakahati drags down
  UpŒdŒna attachment, clinging (lit. strong or firm hold)
     
20. Vi apart, separate, not, free from, special, around, clear, different, opposed to
  Vimala stainless
  Vibhava power or free from existence
  Vigata separated, disappeared
  Vicarati wanders about
  Visoka free from sorrow
  Vikkhipati scatters
  Vipassati sees clearly
  Visama not equal, uneven
  Vicchindati cuts, off
  Vimutti perfect release
  Viloma reverse
  Vimukha averted (lit. face away)
  VyŒkaroti expounds

Of the above prefixes abhi, anu, pati, and pari are sometimes used after the words.

Frequently the consonant following du, ni, and u, and sometimes vi, is duplicated. If the consonant is aspirated, the first duplicated one is changed into the same unaspirated consonant.

Before a vowel "r" is augmented in the case of "du" and "ni", "d" in the case of "u", and "y" in the case of "vi".


Exercise 21-A

1. "MΠnivatta abhikkama."
2. Puttadh“tčhi mŒtŒpitaro yathŒsatti saŗgahetabbŒ.
3. Idh'Œgacchatha, bhikkhavo, yathŒbuhaµ vandatha.
4. Sace'pi dujjanŒ yŒvaj“vaµ sujane bhajeyyuµ tesaµ koci'pi attho na bhaveyya.
5. Sudesitaµ Buddhadhammaµ uggaöhŒmi yathŒbalaµ.
6. Sabbe devamanussŒ manussaloke vŒ devaloke vŒ yathŒkammaµ uppajjanti.
7. *TŒv'Œhaµ PŒĀibhŒsaµ uggaöhŒmi. Api ca kho pana** tassa bhŒsŒya pa ilekhanaµ likhituµ vŒyamŒmi.
8. Tass'antevŒsikŒ gŒmanigamesu vicaritvŒ suriyodaye nagaraµ sampŒpuöiµsu.
9. SenŒpatiputto anupubbena tassa raŹŹhe senŒpati ahosi.
10. "Iti h'etaµ vijŒnŒhi paŹhamo so parŒbhavo."
11. Duranubodhaµ abhidhammaµ ythŒbalaµ paöditŒ-sotčnaµ desetuµ vaŹŹati***.
12. UparŒjŒ paŹirŒjŒnaµ abhibhavituµ upanagaraµ gato.
13. SattasattŒhaµ so nirŒhŒro'va vane vasi.
14. MahŒseŹŹhino corabhayena yathŒsukhaµ na supiµsu.
15. "AttΠhi kira duddamo."

*TŒva, Still.

**Api ca kho pana, nevertheless.

***VaŹŹati, it is fit.

Exercise 21-B

1. The viceroy became the king in due course.
2. You should sit according to seniority.
3. Just when the sun had set they in due course arrived in the suburb.
4. Husbands should treat their wives and children according to their might.
5. Good men and bad men do not always come together.
6. I shall try to be a celibate as long as I live.
7. It is not right to sleep after meals as one wishes.
8. He is yet studying the Higher Doctrine. Nevertheless he will try to teach it according to his strength.
9. Boys, I shall question you now. You must give answers according to order.
10. Pupils follow their teachers according to their ability.
11. Take as much as you require and go away from this home.
12. It is not right for good men to look down upon bad men and women.
13. The mind is indeed difficult to tame. The wise nevertheless overcome it by degrees.
14. When the moon arises darkness disappears.
15. Healthy people do not eat and sleep as much as they like.