An Elementary Pali Course
A Samsa is a compound which is composed of two or more simple words.
As a rule only the final member of the compound takes the case terminations. The preceding members, with a few exceptions, drop their case endings and assume their bases.
The component parts of the compound are combined, wherever necessary, according to the rules of Sandhi.
In Pali there are five classes of
1. Adjectival Compounds (Kammadhraya),
2. Case Compounds (Tappurissa),
3. Copulative Compounds (Dvanda),
4. Attributive Compounds(Bahubb“hi) and
5. Adverbial Compounds (Avyay“bhva).
1. An Adjectival Compound (Kammadhraya) is that which is formed by combining a substantive with an adjective, or a noun in apposition, or an indeclinable used in an adjectival sense, as its prior member.
|In some instances the qualifying adjective follows the noun.|
|Taruöo-puriso||taruöapuriso||(m) young man|
|Taruö“-ka||taruöaka||(f) young maiden|
|Taruöaµ-phalaµ||taruöaphalaµ||(n) young fruit|
|Sumedho-paöito||sumedhapaöito||Sumedha the wise or wise Sumedha|
|S“lam'eva dhanaµ||s“ladhanaµ||wealth of virtue|
|Na-kusalaµ||akusalaµ||immoral or non-moral|
|Na-manusso||amančsso||non-man (a spirit)|
"Na" followed by a consonant is changed into "a", and into "an" when followed by a vowel.
Those Adjectival Compounds that have a numeral as their first member are in PĀi known as Digu Samsa (Numerical Compounds).
|They generally take the neuter singular when they imply an aggregate.|
|They do not take the neuter singular when they do not imply an aggregate.|
2. A Case Compound* (Tappurisa) is that which is formed by combining a substantive with another substantive belonging to anyone of the oblique cases, by dropping its case endings.
In some exceptional cases the preceding members retain their case endings.
These compounds take the gender of the final member and are declined accordingly.
With the exception of the Nominative and Vocative cases all the other oblique cases go to form these compounds.
*According to Saµskrit grammarians this class of compounds is known as Determinative Compound.
|1.||Dutiy - Acc.||gmaµ-gato||= gmagato|
|he who has gone to the village|
|2.||Tatiy - Abl. of Agent||Buddhena-desito||= Buddhadesito|
|preached by the Buddha|
|3.||Karaöa - Instr.||Asin-kalaho||= asikalaho|
|4.||Catutth“ - Dat.||Lokassa-hito||= lokahito|
|beneficial to the world|
|5.||Pacam“ - Abl.||Corasm-bhayaµ||= corabhayaµ|
|fear from thief|
|6.||ChaŹŹh“ - Gen.||Buddhassa-dhammo||= Buddhadhammo|
|7.||Sattam“ - Loc.||Vane-vso||= vanavso|
|residence in the forest|
|pupil (lit. he who lives near)|
*The case endings are retained in these instances.
3. A Copulative Compound (Dvanda) is that which is formed by combining two or more substantives which, if not compounded, would be connected by the particle "ca".
(a) These compounds generally take the plural and the gender of the final member when the component members are viewed separately.
(b) If they collectively imply an aggregate, they take the neuter singular.
|a.||Cando ca suriyo ca||= candasuriy*|
|moon and sun|
|nar ca nriyo ca||= naranriyo|
|men and women|
|b.||Nma ca rčpaca||= nmarčpaµ|
|mind and matter|
|Sukha ca dukkha ca||= sukhadukkhaµ|
|happiness and pain|
|Hatthi ca gavo ca ass ca||= hatthigavssaµ|
|elephants, cattle, and horses|
*Words with fewer syllables are often placed first.
4. An Attributive Compound* (Bahubb“hi) is that in which the component members collectively denote something else than what is originally expressed by them.
These compounds assume the gender of the implied object and are declined accordingly.
*Words with fewer syllables are often placed first.
P“ta means yellow. ambara, garment; but p“tambaro means he who has a yellow garment,
gata, come; samaöa, ascetics; gatasamaöo, the place to which ascetics have come, i.e., a monastery.
DiŹŹho, seen; dhammo, Truth; diŹŹhadhammo, by whom the Truth has been seen, i.e., a Saint.
Ni, free from; taöh craving; nittaöho, he who is free from craving, i.e., an Arahant.
5. An Adverbial Compound (Avyay“bhva) is that which has as its first member a prefix (upasagga) or an indeclinable (nipta), not used in an adjectival sense*, but used in determining the sense of the final member.
The Adverbial Compounds generally take the neuter gender and are indeclinable. They are treated like the nominative singular of neuter substantives.
If the final member of these compounds ends in "a" of "", the neuter termination "µ" is affixed; otherwise the final vowel is retained except in cases of long vowels which are shortened.
*See Adjectival Compounds.
|Anu-pubba||= anupubbaµ||in due course, in regular succession|
|Adhi-itth“||= adhitthi||in a woman or relating to a woman|
|Upa-gaŗg||= upagaŗgaµ||near a river (riverside place)|
|Upa-naggra||= upanagaraµ||near a city, i.e., a suburb|
|Yath-bala||= yathbalaµ||according to strength|
|Yath-kama||= yathkkamaµ||according to order|
|Yath-vuddha||= yathvuddhaµ||according to seniority|
|Yath-satti||= yathsatti||according to one's ability|
|Yva-attha||= yvadatthaµ||as one wishes, as much as required|
|Yva-j“va||= yvaj“vaµ||till life lasts|
|Pacch-bhatta||= pacchbhattaµ||after meal, i.e., after-noon|
When a compound is further compounded with another single word or compound it is treated as a mixed compound.
|white cloth - adj. comp.|
|father's white cloth - case comp.|
|Putt ca dh“taro ca||= puttadh“taro|
|sons and daughters - copulative comp.|
|Mahantani gharni||= mahgharni|
|big houses - adj. comp.|
|Puttadh“tarnaµ mahgharni||= puttadh“tumahgharni|
|the big houses of sons and daughters - case comp.|
|1.||"Sabbadnaµ dhammadnaµ jinti."|
|2.||"Ahaµ te saddhiµ puttadh“thi ds“ bhavissmi."|
|3.||"Tisaraöena saddhiµ pacas“laµ detha me bhante."|
|4.||"Iti'pi so Bhagav arahaµ, samm-sambuddho, ..... satth devamanussnaµ....."|
|5.||"Mtpit dis pubb, cariy dakkhiö dis."|
|6.||Paralokaµ gacchantaµ puttadh“taro v bhtaro v hatthigavssaµ v na anugacchanti (follow).|
|7.||Eho taruöavejjo vejjakammaµ karonto gmanagaresu vicarati.|
|8.||Drakadrikyo tesaµ mtpitunnaµ ovde Źhatv kici'pi ppakammaµ na karonti.|
|9.||S“todakaµ v uöhodakaµ v hara.|
|10.||Amhkaµ Buddho pana pubbe Sumedhapaöito nma ahosi.|
|11.||Sattasu dhanesu saddhdhanaµ pana pa hamaµ; s“ladhanaµ dutiyaµ, padhanaµ sattamaµ.|
|12.||Dvipadesu v catuppadesu v sad mettacittena vasitabbaµ.|
|13.||Ahaµ kh“ösave v na diŹŹhapubbo, satthudhammaµ v na sutapubbo.|
|14.||Itthipuris sukhadukkhaµ bhujamn tibhave vicaranti.|
|15.||Amaccaputt rjabhayena mahpsdato nikkhamiµsu.|
|16.||Mayhaµ antevsikesu dve brahmacrino saddhcetas Buddhadesitaµ dhammaµ sutv samaöadhammaµ katv diŹŹhadhamm ahesuµ.|
|1.||The boys and girls are studying diligently.|
|2.||The monks and nuns heard the Teacher's Doctrine and gained their Deliverance.|
|3.||Sons and daughters should respect their parents.|
|4.||Little children wash their hands and feet with hot water.|
|5.||O young men! You should not associate with evil friends.|
|6.||Sun and Moon shine in the sky.|
|7.||My brother's son is a pupil teacher in a village-school.|
|8.||Great beings are born amongst men for the good of the world.|
|9.||In this vessel is well-water and in that is sea-water.|
|10.||The lion is the king of quadrupeds.|
|11.||His pupils gave the three Refuges and the eight precepts to the male and female devotees.|
|12.||These chairs and beds were washed by the servants and maid-servants to-day.|
|13.||May I understand the four-fold Truth Preached by the Buddha and be a Desireless One!|
|14.||There is no fear of death to the Saints.|
|15.||Never before have I seen white elephants or blue horses.|
|16.||By this gift of Truth may I be an all-knowing Buddha!|