An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XIX

A. Declension of Go

Go: m. bull
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom., Voc. go gŒvo, gavo
Acc. gŒvuµ, gavaµ, gŒvaµ gŒvo, gavo
Instr. gŒvena, gavena gobhi, gohi
Abl. gŒvŒ, gavŒ, gŒvamhŒ, gavamhŒ, gŒvasmŒ, gavasmŒ gobhi, gohi
Dat., Gen. gŒvassa, gavassa gavaµ, gunnaµ, gonaµ
Loc. gŒve, gave, gŒvamhi, gavamhi, gŒvasmiµ, gavasmiµ gosu
     
mana, n. mind
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom. manaµ manŒ, manŒni
Voc. mana, manŒ manŒni
Acc. manaµ mane, manŒni
Instr. mansŒ, manena manebhi, manehi
Abl. manasŒ, manŒ, manamhŒ, manasmŒ manebhi, manehi
Dat., Gen. manaso, manassa manŒnaµ
Loc. manasi, mane, manamhi, manasmiµ manesu

The following nouns are declined like "mana":
aha, day
aya, iron
ceta, mind
chanda, wish, consent, metre
oja, essence
pŒya, water, milk
raja, dust
sara, lake
sira, head
tama, darkness
tapa, asceticism, control
teja, majesty
ura, shoulder
vaca, word
vaya, age
yasa, glory

B. Perfect Tense (H“yattan“)

Terminations
  SINGULAR PLURAL
3rd Œ č
2nd o ttha
1st a mhŒ
     
paca
  SINGULAR PLURAL
3rd apacŒ apacč
2nd apaco apacattha
1st apaca, apacaµ apacamhŒ

In this tense, as in the first past tense (ajjatan“), "a" is prefixed to the root. Sometimes an additional "µ" is found in the 1st person.

As a rule the Ajjatan“ is more commonly used than the H“yattan“ to express the past. It will be safer for the students to adopt the former*.

*See lesson VII.


Exercise 19-A

1. "Etad* avoca satthŒ."
2. "BhagavŒ etam'Œha."
3. "Idam'avoca BhagavŒ."
4. "ŒcariyŒ evam'Œha."
5. "Atthaµ hi nŒtho saraöaµ avoca."
6. "SatthŒ taµ itthiµ Œha - 'etissŒ tava puttaµ deh“'ti."
7. Eko go tamasi khettaµ agamŒ.
8. VayasŒ ahaµ paca v“sati vassŒni.
9. "ManasŒ saµvaro sŒdhu."
10. "Taµ sŒdhukaµ suöŒhi, manasi karohi."
11. AmhŒkaµ sattuno pŒde mayaµ sirasŒ avandamhŒ.
12. Tava vacasŒ vŒ manasŒ vŒ mŒ ki ci pŒpakaµ kammaµ karohi.
13. Ayaµ nŒvŒ ayasŒ katŒ.
14. Satta ahŒni mayaµ kici'pi ŒhŒraµ na abhujamhŒ.
15. Mayhaµ bhŒtŒ gonaµ tiöaµ adŒ.

*Etaµ + avoca = Etad avoca.

Exercise 19-B

1. There is no dust in this street.
2. The consent of the sick monks should be taken.
3. Fathers carry their sons on their shoulders.
4. My father is 45 years of age.
5. The World was in darkness for four days.
6. We should purify our own mind.
7. A fruit from the tree fell on my head.
8. The farmers caused their sons to give grass to the cattle and went to the city.
9. People reverence him on account of his asceticism.
10. In glory may you shine like the moon.
11. The king by his majesty conquered all the people.
12. They have no anger in their minds.
13. The cattle do not drink the water of this lake.
14. There is no essence in this milk.