An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XVII

A. Some Irregular Nouns Ending in "a"

Atta*: m. soul, self
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom. attŒ attŒno
Voc. atta, attŒ attŒno
Acc. attŒnaµ, attaµ attŒno
Instr. attena, attanΠattanebhi, attanehi
Abl. attanŒ, attamhŒ, attasmŒ attanebhi, attanehi
Dat., Gen. attano attŒnaµ
Loc. attani attanesu
*This noun is sometimes used in the sense of a reflexive pronoun.
     
RŒja: m. king
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom. rŒjŒ rŒjŒno
Voc. rŒja, rŒjŒ rŒjŒno
Acc. rŒjŒnaµ, rŒjaµ rŒjŒno
Instr. ra––Œ, rŒjena rŒjčbhi, rŒjčhi, rŒjebhi, rŒjehi
Abl. ra––Œ, rŒjamhŒ, rŒjasmŒ rŒjčbhi, rŒjčhi, rŒjebhi, rŒjehi
Dat., Gen. ra––o, rŒjino ra––aµ, rŒjčnaµ, rŒjŒnaµ
Loc. ra––e, rŒjini, rŒjamhi, rŒjasmiµ rŒjusu, rŒjčsu, rŒjesu

B. Conjugations

In PŒĀi there are seven conjugations. They differ according to their respective conjugational signs (Vikaraöa) which are added on to the roots before the terminations.

There is no definite rule to indicate to which class of conjugation the roots belong.

The conjugations are as follows:-
Class   Conj. sign Pres. 3rd
1st paca - to cook a pac + a + ti = pacati
  bhč - to be   bhč + a + ti
      = bhav + a + ti = bhavati
       
2nd rudhi - to hinder µ.....a ru-µ-dh + a + ti = rundhati
(In this conjugation too the conjugational sign is "a", but "µ" is argumented before the final consonant of the root and is afterwards changed into the nasal of the group-consonant that follows. This rule applies only to the active voice.)
  bhuja - to eat   bhu--ja + a + ti = bhujati
       
3rd divu - to shine ya div + ya + ti = divyati
      = dibyati = dibbati
  hŒ - to abandon   hŒ + ya + ti = hŒyati
       
4th su - to hear öu, öŒ, uöŒ su + öŒ + ti = suŗŒti
      also - su + öu + ti = suöoti
  pa + apa - to arrive   pa + apa + uöŒ + ti = pŒpuöŒti
       
5th ji - to conquer * ji + nŒ + ti = jinŒti
       
6th tanu - to spread o, yira tanu + o + ti = tanoti
  kara - to do   kara + o + ti = karoti
      + yira + ti = kayirati
       
7th cura - to steal e, aya cura + e + ti = coreti
      cura + aya + ti = corayati

*In the conjugation of the root ki, to buy, which belongs to this class nŒ is changed into öŒ; e.g. ki + öŒ + ti = kiöŒti.

The initial vowel in this class, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes vuddhi substitute, i.e., a, i and u become Œ, e, o respectively.

Words:
Amacca m.   minister
Attha m.   matter, good, welfare, meaning
Hi indec.   indeed
NŒtha m.   lord, refuge
PŒsŒda m.   palace
RaŹŹha n.   country, kingdom, realm
SaökiĀissati (kilisa with saµ)   is defiled
SiyŒ 3rd pers. singular subjunctive of asa   to be
Ti indec.   thus. This particle is used in quoting the words of others, at the end of sentences, etc.
Viha––ati (hana with vi)   perishes
Visujjhati (sudha with vi)   is purified

Exercise 17-A

1. "Ayaµ me attano attho."
2. "Na me so attŒ."
3. "Bhagavato etaµ* atthaµ ŒroceyyŒma."
4. "Dhammaµ cara rŒja!"
5. "AttŒ hi attano nŒtho - Ko hi nŒtho paro siyŒ."
6. "AttŒnaµ rakkhanto paraµ rakkhati. Paraµ rakkhanto attŒnaµ rakkhati."
7. At“te pana amhŒkaµ raŹŹhe guöavŒ rŒjŒ ahosi.
8. Ra––Œ likhitaµ* idaµ lekhanaµ amaccŒ passantu!
9. PŒpakehi amaccehi ra––o ko attho?
10. AmhŒkaµ rŒjŒnaµ passituµ puratthimŒya disŒya dve rŒjŒno ŒgatŒ.
11. RŒjŒ attano mahesiyŒ saddhiµ pŒsŒde vasati.
12. Catčhi disŒhi cattŒro rŒjŒno ŒgantvŒ Bhagavantaµ vanditvŒ etam'atthaµ pucchiµsu.
13. "PuttŒ m'atthi dhanaµ m'atthi - Iti bŒlo viha––ati
AttŒ hi attano n'atthi - Kuto puttŒ kuto dhanaµ."
14. "AttanŒ'va kataµ pŒpaµ - attanŒ saökilissati
AttanŒ akataµ pŒpaµ - attanŒ'va visujjhati."

*µ is changed into m.

Exercise 17-B

1. l am my own master.
2. He advised himself.
3. These presents were sent by the king.
4. Good or evil is done by oneself.
5. The ministers taking their own sons went to the palace to see the king.
6. It is not good for kings to get angry with the people.
7. Virtuous kings are always respected by all.
8. He does not know his own good.
9. Righteous kings do not wish to associate with wicked kings.
10. By wisdom is one purified.
11. Ministers obtain wealth by means of kings.
12. He for his own good associates with kings and ministers.
13. Some kings perish on account of their greediness towards the countries of others.
14. The ministers told that matter to the king.
15. He does not shine like a king.