An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XVI

A. Numerals

1 eka 21 eka-v“sati
2 dvi 22 dve-v“sati, dvŒ-v“sati
3 ti 23 te-v“sati
4 catu 24 catu-v“sati
5 paca 25 paca-v“sati
6 cha 26 chabb“sati
7 satta 27 satta-v“sati
8 aŹŹha 28 aµµha-v“sati
9 nava 29 ek'čna-tiµsati
10 dasa 30 tiµsati, tiµsŒ
11 ekŒdasa 31 ekatiµsati, ekatiµsŒ
12 dvŒdasa, bŒrasa 32 dvattiµsati, dvattiµsŒ
13 terasa, teĀasa 33 tettiµsati, tettiµsŒ
14 cuddasa, catuddasa 34 catuttiµsati, catuttiµsŒ
15 pacadasa, paööarasa 35 paca-tiµsati, paca-tiµsŒ
16 soĀasa, sorasa 36 chattiµsati, chattiµsŒ
17 sattadasa, sattŒrasa 37 satta-tiµsati, satta-tiµsŒ
18 aŹŹhadasa, aŹŹhŒrasa 38 aµµha-tiµsati, aµµha-tiµsŒ
19 ek'čna-vŒsati (lit. one less twenty) 39 ek'čna cattŒĀ“sati
20 v“sati, v“saµ 40 cattŒĀ“sati, cattŒĀ“saµ, cattŒĀ“sŒ
       
49 ek'čna pa––Œsa
50 paööŒsa, pa––ŒsŒ
60 saŹŹhi
70 sattati
79 ek'čnŒs“ti
80 as“ti
90 navuti
99 ek'čna-sataµ
   
100 sataµ
200 dvi sataµ
1,000 sahassaµ
10,000 dasa-sahassaµ, nahutaµ
100,000 sata-sahassaµ, lakkhaµ
10,000,000 koŹi
100,000,000 dasa-koŹi
1,000,000,000 sata-koŹi

"Eka", "ti" and "catu" are declinable in the three genders. When "eka" is used in the sense of 'some, certain, incomparable', it is declinable in the three genders and in both numbers. Otherwise it is declined only in the singular.

Numerals from "dvi" to "aŹŹhŒrasa" are declined only in the plural. With the exception of "ti" and "catu", all the other numerals are common to all genders.

These numerals agree with the noun they qualify in number and case. Eka, ti, and catu agree in gender also. Generally they are placed before the noun.

Declension of "dvi"
Nom., Acc. dve, duve
Instr., Abl. dv“bhi, dv“hi
Dat., Gen. dvinnaµ
Loc. dv“su
       
"ti"
  m. n. f.
Nom., Acc. tayo t“ni tisso
Instr., Abl. t“bhi, t“hi    
Dat., Gen. tiööaµ tiööannaµ tissannaµ
Loc. t“su    
       
"catu"
  m. n. f.
Nom., Acc. cattŒro, caturo cattŒri catasso
Instr., Abl. catčbhi, catčhi  
Dat., Gen. catunnaµ catussannaµ
Loc. catusu, catčsu  
       
"paca"
Nom., Acc. paca
Instr., Abl. pacabhi, pacahi
Dat., Gen. pacannaµ
Loc. pacasu

Numerals from "ek'čnav“sati" to "aŹŹha-navuti" and "koŹi"are treated as feminines and are declined only in the singular like feminine "i" (see bhčmi). TiµsŒ, cattŒĀ“sŒ, and pa––ŒsŒ are declined like feminine "Œ" (see ka––Œ).

Numerals from "ek'čnasata" to "lakkha" are declined only in the singular like the neuter "a" (see phala). When, however, numerals from "v“sati" and upwards are used collectively they take the plural; e.g.,
dve v“satiyo, two twenties
t“öi satŒni, three hundreds

B. Ordinals

1. paŹhama (first)
2. Dutiya (second)
3. Tatiya (third)
4. Catuttha (fourth)
5. Pa
cama (fifth)
6. Cha
ŹŹha (sixth)

The rest are formed by suffixing "ma", as sattama (seventh), aŹŹhama (eighth), etc.

The ordinals also agree with the noun they qualify in gender, number and case. In the masculine and neuter they are declined like "nara" and "phala" respectively. In the feminine "paŹhama", "dutiya", and "tatiya" are declined like "ka––Œ". The ordinals from "catuttha" to "dasama" assume the feminine suffix "“" and are declined like "nŒr“"; e.g., catuttha + “ = catutth“, sattama + “ = sattam“, etc.

The feminines of other ordinals are formed by adding "“" directly to the numerals, as ekŒdasa + "“" = ekŒdas“.

Words:
Divasa m., n.   day
Ito indec.   hence, ago, from now, from here
MŒsa m., n.   month
Pana indec.   but, however, further (sometimes used without a meaning)
Pariccheda m.   limit, extent, chapter
Saraöa n.   refuge
S“la n.   morality, precept, virtue
Vassa m., n.   year, rain

Exercise 16-A

1. CattŒr'imŒni, bhikkhave, saccŒni.
2. "Ekaµ nŒma kiµ?"
3. T“su lokesu sattŒ uppajjanti.
4. Ekasmiµ hatthe paca aöguliyo honti.
5. Ito sattame divase ahaµ gamissŒmi.
6. Mayaµ t“öi vassŒni imasmiµ gŒme vasimhŒ.
7. Ayaµ pana imasmiµ potthake soĀasamo paricchedo hoti.
8. "Buddhaµ saraöaµ gacchŒmi. Dutiyam'pi Buddhaµ saraöaµ gacchŒmi. Tatiyam'pi Buddhaµ saraöaµ gacchŒmi."
9. So tassa tiööaµ puttŒnaµ cattŒri cattŒri katvŒ dvŒdasa phalŒni adŒsi.
10. Etasmiµ ghare catasso itthiyo vasanti.
11. Yo pa hamaµ Œgaccheyya so paööŒkŒraµ labheyya.
12. Imasmiµ ghare ayaµ tatiyŒ bhčmi.
13. Antimena paricchedena gahapat“hi paca s“lŒni rakkhitabbŒni.
14. Guöavanto sadŒ paca s“lŒni ca aŹŹhamiyaµ cŒtuddasiyaµ pacadasiyaµ ca aŹŹha s“lŒni rakkhanti.
15. Bhikkhč pan'eva dvisata sttav“sati sikkhŒpadŒni rakkhanti.
16. Tassa se  hino catupaööŒsakoŹi dhanaµ atthi.
17. Ekasmiµ mŒse tiµsa divasŒ honti. Ekasmiµ vasse pana tisata pacasaŹŹhi divasŒ honti.
18. ImŒya pŒŹhasŒlŒya pacasatŒni sissŒ uggaöhanti.

Exercise 16-B

1. I gave him four books.
2. He lived three days in our house.
3. We have two eyes, but only one mouth.
4. There are thirty days in one month, and twelve months in one year.
5. They are now studying the twelfth chapter of the book.
6. Which of these two presents would you take?
7. The child bought three mangoes, ate one and took two home.
8. He will come on the 28th day of this month.
9. They took the Three Refuges and the five precepts to-day.
10. There were two hundred patients in the hospital yesterday.
11. Seven days hence my father will come to see me.
12. Some householders observe the ten precepts on the fifteenth day.
13. If you do evil, you will be born in the four evil states.
14. If you do good, you will be born in the seven states of happiness.
15. He gave five hundred and received thousand.
16. She brought three presents for her three little sisters.
17. My age is eighteen years.
18. In his 29th year he left home, and endeavouring for six years he understood the Four Truths and became a fully Enlightened One in his thirty-fifth year. After becoming a Buddha He preached the Doctrine for forty-five years.