An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XIV

Participles

In PŒĀi there are six kinds of Participles - viz:
(i) Present Active participles,
(ii) Present Passive Participles,
(iii) Past Indeclinable Participles
*,
(iv) Past Active Participles,
(v) Past Passive Participles, and
(vi) Potential Participles

*These have been already dealt with in lesson VIII-B. See Table in lesson VI-B.

i. The Present Active Participles are formed by adding "anta" and "mŒna" to the root; e.g:,
paca + anta = pacanta;
paca + mŒna = pacamŒna, cooking.

ii. The Present Passive Participles are formed by adding the Passive suffix "ya" between the root and the suffix "mŒna". If the ending of the root is "a" or "Œ", it is changed into "i" , e.g.,
paca + ya + mŒna = pac“yamŒna, being cooked;
sč + ya + mŒna = sčyamŒna, being heard.

Generally these suffixes are added to the forms the roots assume before the third person plural terminations of the present tense.

These participles are inflectional and agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify, in gender, number and case. They are also used when contemporaneity of action is to be indicated. The sense of the English words 'as, since, while, whilst' may be expressed by them.

Declension of pacanta in the masculine
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom. pacaµ, pacanto pacanto, pacantŒ
Voc. pacaµ, paca, pacŒ pacanto, pacantŒ
Acc. pacantaµ pacante
Instr. pacatŒ, pacantena pacantebhi, pacantehi
Abl. pacatŒ, pacantamhŒ, pacantasmŒ pacantebhi, pacantehi
Dat., Gen. pacato, pacantassa pacataµ, pacantŒnaµ
Loc. pacati, pacante, pacantamhi, pacantasmiµ pacantesu

Feminine
The feminine is formed by adding the suffix "“", as
pacanta + “ = pacant“, and is declined like feminine nouns ending in "“" (See lesson X).

Neuter
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom., Voc. pacaµ pacantŒ, pacantŒni
Acc. pacantaµ pacante, pacantŒni
The rest like the masculine.

The Present Participles ending in "mŒna" are declined like "nara", "ka––Œ" and "phala"; as pacamŒno (m.) pacamŒnŒ (f.) and pacamŒnaµ (n.).

Illustrations:
gacchanto puriso, going man, or the man who is going.
gacchantassa purisassa, to the man who is going.
paccant“ (or) pacamŒnŒ itth“, the woman who is cooking.
so vadamŒno gacchati, he goes speaking.
patamŒnaµ phalaµ, the falling fruit.
rakkh“yamŒnaµ nagaraµ, the city that is being protected.
Ahaµ magge gacchanto taµ purisaµ passiµ, I saw that man while I was going on the way.

(iv), (v) The Past Active and Passive participles are formed by adding the suffix "ta", or "na" after "d" etc. to the root or stem. If the ending of the root is "a", it is often changed into "i".

Examples:-
Œ + ta = Œta, known
su + ta = suta, heard
paca + ta = pacita, cooked
rakkha + ta = rakkhita, protected
chidi + na = chinna, cut
bhidi + na = bhinna, broken

These are also inflectional and agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify in gender, number and case. They are frequently used to supply the place of verbs, sometimes in conjunction with the auxiliaries "asa" and "hu" to be.

Illustrations:
So gato, he went or he is gone. (Here hoti is understood.)
éhito naro, the man who stood.
éhitassa narassa, to the man who stood or to the man standing.
éhitŒya nŒriyŒ, to the woman who stood.
Buddhena desito dhammo, the Doctrine preached by the Buddha.
Sissehi pucchitassa pa
hassa, to the question asked by the pupils.

(vi) The Potential Participles are formed by adding the suffix "tabba" to the root or stem with or without. If the ending of the root is "a", it is often changed into "i".

Examples:-
DŒ + tabba = dŒtabba, should or must be given.
Œ + tabba = Œtabba, should be known.
paca + tabba = pacitabba, should be cooked.

These participles too agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify in gender, number and case. The agent is put in the Instrumental.

Illustrations:
Janako vanditabbo, the father should be saluted.
Janan“ rakkhitabbŒ, the mother should be protected.
Cittaµ rakkhitabbaµ, the mind should be guarded.
TayŒ gantabbaµ, you should go.
SŒvakehi dhammo sotabbo, the Doctrine should be heard by the disciples.

Examples:-
Root Present Act. Part. Present Pass. Part. Past Part. Potential Part.
denta d“yamana dinna dŒtabba
disa* desenta, desamŒna, passanta, passamŒna des“yamŒna, passiyamŒna desita, diŹŹha desetabba, passitabba
bhuja bhujanta, bhujamŒna bhuj“yamŒna bhutta bhujitabba
gamu gacchanta, gacchamŒna gacch“yamŒna gata gantabba
gaha gaöhanta, gaöhamŒna gayhamŒna gahita gahetabba
kara karonta, kurumŒna kayiramŒna, kar“yamŒna kata kattabba, kŒtabba
pibanta, pivanta, pibamŒna, pivamŒna p“yamŒna p“ta pŒtabba
su suöanta, suöamŒna sčyamŒna suta sotabba, suöitabba

*disa, (i) to preach; (ii) to see. Desenta, preaching; Passanta, seeing.

Words:
Atthi v.   is, there is
AviheŹhayanta p. part. a + vi + heŹha   not hurting
Bhčta n.   being
Carati v. (cara)   wanders
KhaggavisŒöakappa m.   like a rhinoceros
NidhŒya ind. p. p. ni + dhŒ   having left aside
Pema m.   attachment, love
SahŒya m.   friend
TaöhŒ f.   craving
Upasakamati v. (kamu with upa + saµ)   approaches

Exercise 14-A

1. "Evaµ me sutaµ."
2. Mayi gate* so Œgato.
3. Kiµ tena kataµ?
4. So tassa vaööaµ bhaöamŒno maµ upasaµkami.
5. Ahaµ magge gacchanto tasmiµ rukkhe nisinnaµ sakuöaµ passiµ.
6. Bhikkhčhi lokassa dhammo desetabbo.
7. Pu––aµ kattabbaµ, pŒpaµ na kŒtabbaµ.
8. Ajja etena maggena mayŒ gantabbaµ.
9. SabbŒ itthiyo dhammaµ sunantiyo etŒya sŒlŒya nis“diµsu.
10. PaöitŒ yaµ yaµ desaµ bhajanti tattha tatth'eva pčjitŒ honti.
11. Buddhena bujjhitŒni saccŒni mayŒ'pi bujjhitabbŒni.
12. Paraµ lokaµ gacchante tayŒ kataµ pu––aµ vŒ pŒpaµ vŒ tayŒ saddhiµ gacchati.
13. éhito vŒ nisinno vŒ gacchanto vŒ sayanto (or sayŒno) vŒ ahaµ sabbesu sattesu mettaµ karomi.
14. VejjasŒlŒya vasantŒnaµ gilŒnŒnaµ pure osadhaµ dŒtabbaµ, pacchŒ aparesaµ dŒtabbaµ.
15. Kiµ nu kattabban'ti ajŒnantŒ te mama purato aŹŹhaµsu.
16. "Pemato** jŒyati soko - pemato jŒyati bhayaµ;
  Pemato vippamuttassa - n'atthi soko kuto bhayaµ."
17. "TaöhŒya jŒyati soko - taöhŒya jŒyati bhayaµ;
  TaöhŒya vippamuttassa - n'atthi soko kuto bhayaµ."
18. Ekasmiµ samaye a––ataro devo rattiyaµ Buddhaµ upasaŗkamitvŒ saddhŒya vanditvŒ bhčmiyaµ aŹŹhŒsi. éhito so devo Buddhaµ ekaµ pahaµ pucchi. Pucchantassa devassa Buddho evaµ dhammaµ desesi.
19. Te gaŗgŒyaµ nahŒyante mayaµ passimhŒ.
20. "Sabbesu bhčtesu nidhŒya daöaµ
  AviheŹhayaµ a––ataram'pi tesaµ
  Na puttam'iccheyya kuto sahŒyaµ
  Eko care KhaggavisŒöakappo."

*This is the Locative absolute.

**"To" is another suffix for forming the ablative.

Exercise 14-B

1. This was done by you.
2. The branch was cut by him.
3. I saw a man going in the street.
4. She stood saluting the sage.
5. I came home when he had gone to school.
6. The monkeys ate the fallen fruits.
7. They saw her sitting in the hall.
8. You should not bathe in the river.
9. Let him do what should be done.
10. Thus should it be understood by you.
11. The books written by me should not be given to them.
12. My friends saw the jewel that was thrown into the fire.
13. I sat on the ground listening to the doctrine preached by the monks.
14. The virtuous should do much merit.
15. The people saw the sick persons drinking medicine given by the physician.