An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XIII

A. Relative Pronouns

Ya: who, which, that
SINGULAR
  m. n. f.
Nom. yo yaµ
Acc. yaµ yaµ
Instr. yena yŒya
Abl. yamhŒ, yasmŒ yŒya
Dat., Gen. yassa yassa, yŒya
Loc. yamhi, yasmiµ yassaµ, yŒyaµ
PLURAL
  m. n. f.
Nom. ye ye, yŒni yŒ, yŒyo
Acc. ye ye, yŒni yŒ, yŒyo
Instr., Abl. yebhi, yehi yŒbhi, yŒhi
Dat., Gen. yesaµ, yesŒnaµ yŒsaµ, yŒsŒnaµ
Loc. yesu yŒsu
       
Ta: who, he
SINGULAR
  m. n. f.
Nom. so naµ, taµ
Acc. naµ, taµ naµ, taµ
Instr. nena, tena nŒya, tŒya
Abl. namhŒ, tamhŒ, nasmŒ, tasmŒ nŒya, tŒya
Dat., Gen. nassa, tassa tissŒya, tissŒ, tassŒ, tŒya
Loc. namhi, tamhi, nasmiµ, tasmiµ tissaµ, tassaµ, tŒyaµ
PLURAL
  m. n. f.
Nom. ne, te ne, te, nŒni, tŒni nŒ, nŒyo, tŒ, tŒyo
Acc. ne, te ne, te, nŒni, tŒni nŒ, nŒyo, tŒ, tŒyo
Instr., Abl. nebhi, nehi, tebhi, tehi nŒbhi, nŒhi, tŒbhi, tŒhi
Dat., Gen. nesaµ, nesŒnaµ, tesaµ, tesŒnaµ tŒsaµ, tŒsŒnaµ
Loc. nesu, tesu tŒsu

The forms beginning with "t" are more commonly used.

The pronouns "ya" and "ta" are frequently used together. They are treated as Correlatives.

Examples:-
"Yo Dhammaµ passati so Buddhaµ passati"
He who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha.
"Yaµ hoti taµ hotu" - be it as it may
yaµ icchasi taµ vadehi - Say what you wish
"Yo gilŒnaµ upa
ŹŹhŒti so maµ upaŹŹhŒti"
He who serves the sick serves me.

Eta: that (yonder)
  SINGULAR PLURAL
  m. n. f. m. n. f.
Nom. eso etaµ esŒ ete ete, etŒni etŒ, etŒyo
Acc. etaµ etaµ etaµ ete ete, etŒni etŒ, etŒyo

The rest like "ta", with the exception of forms beginning with "n".

B. The Interrogative Pronoun

Ka: who, which?
SINGULAR
  m. n. f.
Nom. ko kaµ, kiµ
Acc. kaµ kaµ, kiµ
Instr. kena kŒya
Abl. kamhŒ, kasmŒ kŒya
Dat., Gen. kassa, kissa kŒya, kassŒ±
Loc. kamhi, kasmiµ, kimhi, kismiµ kŒya, kŒyaµ

The rest like "ya".

"ci" is suffixed to all the cases of "ka" in all the genders to form Indefinite Pronouns; e.g., koci, kŒci, any, etc.

The following adjectives are declined like "ya":-
A––a   another
A––atara   certain
Apara   other, subsequent, Western
Dhakkhiöa   South
Eka   one, certain, some
Itara   different, the remaining
Katara   what? which? (generally of the two)
Katama   what? which? (generally of many)
Pacchima   West
Para   other, different
Pubba   first, foremost, Eastern, earlier
Puratthima   East
Sabba   all
Uttara   higher, superior, Northern

A––a, a––atara, itara, eka are sometimes declined in the Dative and Genitive feminine singular as: a––issŒ, a––atarissŒ, itarissŒ and ekissŒ respectively; in the Locative feminine singular as: a––issaµ, a––atarissaµ, itarissaµ and ekissaµ respectively.

Pubba, para, apara are sometimes declined in the Ablative masculine singular, as: pubbŒ, parŒ, and aparŒ respectively; in the locative masculine singular, as: pubbe, pare, and apare respectively.

Words:
ŒdŒya indec. p. p.   (dŒ with Œ) having taken
DisŒ f.   quarter, direction
Kiµ indec.   Why? what? pray
NŒma n.   name; mind
  indec.   by name, indeed
  (Sometimes used without a meaning.)
Nu indec.   pray, I wonder!
  (Sometimes used in asking a question.)
Payojana indec.   use, need
indec.   either, or

Exercise 13-A

1. Ko nŒma tvaµ?
2. Ko nŒma eso?
3. Ko nŒma te Œcariyo?
4. IdŒni eso kiµ karissati?
5. Kiµ tvaµ etaµ pucchasi?
6. EsŒ nŒr“ te kiµ hoti?
7. Sve kim'ete karissanti?
8. Kassa bhikkhussa taµ potthakaµ pesessŒma?
9. Tesaµ dhanena me kiµ payojanaµ?
10. Ko jŒnŒti 'kiµ'eso karissat“'ti?
11. Kissa phalaµ nŒma etaµ?
12. KŒyaµ disŒyaµ tassŒ janan“ idŒni vasati?
13. Kassa dhammaµ sotuµ ete icchanti?
14. "Yo Dhammaµ passati so Buddham passati, yo Buddhaµ passati so Dhammaµ pasati."
15. Yaµ tvaµ icchasi taµ etassa arocehi.
16. Yaµ te karonti tam* eva gahetvŒ paraµ lokaµ gacchanti.
17. Yassaµ disŒyaµ so vasati tassaµ disŒyaµ ete'pi vasituµ icchanti.
18. Eso naro ekaµ vadati, esŒ nŒr“ a––aµ vadati.
19. Paresaµ bhaöŒni mayaµ na gaöhŒma.
20. EtŒni phalŒni mŒ tassa sakuöassa detha.
21. IdŒni sbbe'pi te Bhikkhč uttarŒya disŒya a––atarasmiµ ŒrŒme vasanti.
22. Etasmiµ nagare sabbe narŒ aparaµ nagaraµ agamiµsu.
23. Kici'pi kŒtuµ so na jŒnŒti.
24. Katamaµ disaµ tumhe gantuµ iccheyyŒtha -puratthimaµ vŒ dakkhiöaµ vŒ pacchimaµ vŒ uttaraµ vŒ?
25. KatarŒya disŒya tvaµ suriyaµ passasi -pubŒyaµ vŒ aparŒyaµ vŒ?

*When a niggahita (µ) is followed by a vowel, it is sometimes changed into "m". See note in Exercise 10-A.

Exercise 13-B

1. Who is she?
2. What is his name?
3. In which direction did he go?
4. Is he a relative of yours?
5. What is the name of that fruit?
6. From whom did you buy those books?
7. With whom shall we go today?
8. In whose garden are those boys and girls playing?
9. In which direction do you see the sun in the morning?
10. Of what use is that to him or to her?
11. To whom did he give those presents?
12. What is the use of your wealth, millionaire? You are not going to take all that with you to the other world. Therefore* eat well. Have no attachment to your wealth. Grief results thereby.** Do merit with that wealth of yours. Erect hospitals for the sick schools for children, temples for monks and nuns. It is those good actions you take with you when you go to the other world.
13. Those who do good deeds are sure to be born in good states.
14. Let him say what he likes.
15. We did not write all those letters.
16. You should not tell others all that you see with your eyes.
17. We like to live in cities in which wise men live.

*Use "tasmŒ".

**Use "tena".