An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson VI

A. Nouns ending in "Œ"

Ka––Œ: f. maiden, virgin
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom. Ka––Œ Ka––Œ, Ka––Œyo
Voc. Ka––e Ka––Œ, Ka––Œyo
Acc. Ka–– Ka––Œ, Ka––Œyo
Instr., Abl. Ka––Œya Ka––Œbhi, K––Œhi
Dat., Gen. Ka––Œya Ka––Œnaµ
Loc. Ka––Œya, Ka––Œyaµ Ka––Œsu
     
Terminations
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom. -- --, yo
Voc. e --, yo
Acc. --, yo
Instr., Abl. ya bhi, hi
Dat., Gen. ya naµ
Loc. ya, yaµ su

All nouns ending in "Œ" are in the feminine with the exception of "sŒ", m. dog.

Feminine Substantives:
BhariyŒ   wife
BhŒsŒ   language
DŒrikŒ   girl
DhammasŒlŒ   preaching-hall
Gaŗ   Ganges, river
NŒvŒ   ship, boat
OsadhasŒlŒ   dispensary
PŒĀibhŒsŒ   PŒĀi language
Pa––Œ   wisdom
ŹhasŒlŒ   school
SaddhŒ   faith, devotion, confidence
SalŒ   hall
GilŒnasŒlŒ   hospital
VisikhŒ   street

B. Infinitive

The Infinitives are formed by adding the suffix "tuµ" to the root. If the ending of the root is "a", it is often changed into "i".

Examples:-
paca + tuµ = pacituµ, to cook
rakkha + tuµ = rakkhituµ, to protect
dŒ + tuµ = dŒtuµ, to give

Generally the above suffix is added to the forms the roots assume before the third person plural termination of the present tense*.

Examples:-
desenti desetuµ
kiöanti kiöituµ
bhu
janti bhujituµ
suöanti suöŗituµ, sotuµ
pesenti pesetuµ

*This same principle applies to the Indeclinable Past Participles and Present Participles which will be treated later.

TABLE

Root

Meaning
3rd per.
pres. pl.

Infinitive

Ind. Past Part.
*
disa to preach desenti desetuµ desetvŒ
disa to see passanti passituµ disvŒ, passitvŒ
gaha to take gaöhanti gaöhituµ gaöhitvŒ, gahetvŒ
gamu to go gacchanti gantuµ gantvŒ
gamu with Œ to come Œgacchanti Œgantuµ ŒgantvŒ, Œgamma
to be honti hotuµ hutvŒ
isu to wish icchanti icchituµ icchitvŒ
kara to do karonti kŒtuµ katvŒ
lapa with saµ to converse sallapanti sallapituµ sallapitvŒ
Œ (jŒna) to know jŒnanti Œtuµ, jŒnituµ atvŒ, jŒnitvŒ
nahŒ to bathe nahŒyanti nahŒyituµ nahŒyitvŒ, nahŒtvŒ
to drink pibanti, pivanti pŒtuµ, pibituµ p“tvŒ, pibitvŒ
ruha with Œ to ascend Œruhanti Œruhituµ ŒruhitvŒ, Œruyha
Ź to stand tiŹŹhanti ŹhŒtuµ ŹhatvŒ

*These Indeclinable Past Participles will be treated in lesson VIII.

Illustrations:
1. BhariyŒ dŒrikŒnaµ dŒtuµ odanaµ pacati.
  The wife to the girls to give rice cooks.
2. DŒrikŒyo uggaöhituµ pŒŹhasŒlaµ gacchanti.
  The girls to learn to school go.
3. Te gaŗgŒyaµ k“Āituµ icchanti.
  They in the river to play wish.
4. Ka––Œyo ŒhŒraµ bhujituµ sŒlŒyaµ nis“danti.
  The maidens food to eat in the hall sit.

Exercise 6-A

1. Ka––Œyo gaŗgŒyaµ nahŒyituµ gacchanti.
2. Ahaµ pŒŹhasŒlaµ gantuµ icchŒmi.
3. Mayaµ Dhammaµ sotuµ sŒlŒyaµ nis“dŒma.
4. Kuhiµ tvaµ bhariyŒya saddhiµ gacchasi?
5. DŒrikŒyo saddhŒya Buddhaµ vandanti.
6. SissŒ idŒni PŒĀibhŒsŒya lekhanŒni likhituµ jŒnanti.
7. NarŒ pa––aµ labhituµ bhŒsŒyo uggaöhanti.
8. Ka––e, kuhiµ tvaµ pupphŒni harituµ icchasi?
9. Ka––Œyo dŒrikŒhi saddhiµ gilŒne phalehi saŗgaöhituµ vejjasŒlaµ gacchanti.
10. AssŒ udakaµ pibituµ gaŗgaµ oruhanti.
11. SŒ Œcariyassa bhariyŒ hoti.
12. GilŒne saŗganhituµ visikhŒyaµ osadhasŒlŒ na hoti.
13. NarŒ bhariyŒnaµ dŒtuµ Œpaöehi vatthŒni kiöanti.
14. DŒrikŒ gharaµ gantuµ maggaµ na jŒnŒti.
15. DŒrakŒ ca dŒrikŒyo ca pŒŹhasŒlŒyaµ p“Źhesu nis“dituµ na icchanti.
16. GilŒnŒ gharŒni gantuµ osadhasŒlŒya nikkhamanti.
17. Mayaµ Œcariyehi saddhiµ pŒĀibhŒsŒya sallapŒma.
18. Bhariye, kuhiµ tvaµ gantuµ icchasi?
19. Mayaµ gaŗgŒyaµ nŒvŒyo passituµ gacchŒma.
20. Pa––aµ ca saddhaµ ca labhituµ mayaµ Dhammaµ suöŒma.

Exercise 6-B

1. O maidens, do you wish to go to the temple today?
2. I am coming to take medicine from the dispensary.
3. There are no dispensaries in the street here
4. Father, I know to speak in PŒĀi now.
5. We see no ships on the river.
6. She wishes to go with the maidens to see the school.
7. With faith the girl goes to offer flowers to the Buddha.
8. You are sitting in the preaching hall to hear the Doctrine.
9. Boys and girls wish to bathe in rivers.
10. There are no patients in the hospital.
11. We study languages to obtain wisdom.
12. I do not wish to go in ships.
13. With faith they sit in the hall to learn the Doctrine.
14. I do not know the language of the letter.
15. O girls, do you know the way to go home?
16. He is bringing a book to give to the wife.