An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson V

Full Declension of Nouns ending in "a"

Nara: m. man
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom. naro narŒ
  a man men
Voc. nara, narŒ narŒ
  O man! O men!
Acc. naraµ nare
  a man men
Instr. narena narebhi, narehi
  by or with a man by or with men
Abl. narŒ, naramhŒ, narasmŒ narebhi, narehi
  from a man from men
Dat. narŒya, narassa narŒnaµ
  to or for a man to or for men
Gen. narassa narŒnaµ
  of a man of men
Loc. nare, naramhi, narasmiµ naresu
  in or upon a man in or upon men
     
Neuter Gender
Phala: fruit
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom. phalaµ phalŒ, phalŒni
Voc. phala, phalŒ phalŒ, phalŒni
Acc. phalaµ phale, phalŒni
(The rest like the masculine)

 

The Cases in PŒĀi
PaŹhamŒ (1st)   Nominative
īlapana   Vocative
DutiyŒ (2nd)   Accusative
TatiyŒ (3rd)   Auxiliary*
Karaöa   Instrumental*
Catutthi (4th)   Dative
Pacam“ (5th)   Ablative
ChaŹŹhi (6th)   Genitive
Sattam“ (7th)   Locative

*As TatiyŒ (Auxiliary) and Karaöa (Instrumental) have the same terminations, only the Instrumental case is given in the declensions.

Terminations
  SINGULAR PLURAL
  m. n. m. n.
Nom. o µ Œ Œ, ni
Voc. --, Œ Œ Œ, ni
Acc. µ e e, ni
Aux. ena ebhi, ehi
Instr. ena ebhi, ehi
Dat. Œya, ssa naµ
Abl. Œ, mhŒ, smŒ ebhi, ehi
Gen. ssa naµ
Loc. e, mhi, smiµ esu

The vowels preceding ni, bhi, hi, naµ and su are always long.

Neuter Substantives:
B“ja   seed, germ
Bhaöda   goods, article
Ghara   home, house
Khetta   field
Lekhana   letter
Mitta   (m. n.) friend
Mukha   face, mouth
Nagara   city
PŒda   (m. n.) foot
P“Źha   chair, bench
Potthaka   book
Puppha   flower
Udaka   water
Vattha   cloth, raiment

 

Verbs:  
Bhujati (bhuja)   eats, partakes
KhŒdati (khŒda)   eats, chews
Likhati (likha)   writes
Nis“dati (sada with ni)   sits
Pčjeti (pčja)   offers
Vapati (vapa)   sows

Exercise 5-A

1. SakuöŒ phalŒni khŒdanti.
2. Mayaµ p“
Źhesu nis“dŒma, macesu supŒma.
3. NarŒ Œpaöehi bhaödŒni kiöanti
4. PhalŒni rukkhehi patanti.
5. KassakŒ khettesu b“jŒni vapanti.
6. SabbadŒ mayaµ udakena pŒde ca mukha
* ca dhovŒma.
7. SissŒ ŒcariyŒnaµ lekhanŒni likhanti.
8. IdŒni ahaµ mittehi saddhiµ ghare vasŒmi.
9. DŒso taĀŒkasmiµ vatthŒni dhovati.
10. So pupphehi Buddhaµ pčjeti.
11. KasmŒ tvaµ ŒhŒraµ na bhu
jasi?
12. Ajja sissŒ Œcariyehi potthakŒni uggaöhanti.
13. MaggikŒ mittehi saddhiµ nagaraµ vicaranti.
14. Ahaµ sabbadŒ ŒrŒmasmŒ pupphŒni ŒharŒmi.
15. Mayaµ nagare gharŒni passŒma.
16. KassakŒ nagare taĀŒkasmŒ udakaµ Œharanti.
17. DŒrakŒ janakassa p“
Źhasmiµ na nis“danti.
18. Mittaµ Œcariyassa potthakaµ pčjeti.
19. Tumhe narŒnaµ vatthŒni ca bhaödŒni ca vikkiöŒtha.
20. Œcariyassa ŒrŒme samaöŒ Œdarena narŒnaµ Buddhassa Dhammaµ desenti.

*Mukhaµ + ca = mukhaca

Exercise 5-B

1. I am writing a letter to (my) friend.
2. We eat fruits.
3. We offer flowers to the Buddha everyday.
4. He is not going home now.
5. You are sowing seeds in the field today.
6. The sons are washing the father's feet with water.
7. They are partaking food with the friends in the house.
8. Children's friends are sitting on the benches.
9. Are you writing letters to the teachers today?
10. I am sending books home through the servant.
11. I see fruits on the trees in the garden.
12. The birds eat the seeds in the field.
13. Friends are not going away from the city today.
14. We are coming from home on foot
*.
15. From where do you buy goods now?
16. Men in the city are giving clothes and medicine to the sick.

*Use the Instrumental.