An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson IV

A. Declension of Nouns ending in "a" (contd.)

Nara
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Locative nare, naramhi, narasmiµ naresu
  in or upon a man in or upon men
Vocative nara, narŒ narŒ
  O man! O men!
     
Terminations
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Locative e, mhi, smiµ esu
Vocative a, Œ Œ

 

Masculine Substantives:
īkŒsa   sky
Maca   bed
Canda   moon
Sakuöa   bird
Kassaka   farmer
Samudda   sea, ocean
Maccha   fish
Suriya   sun
Magga   way, road
VŒöija   merchant
Maggika   traveller
Loka   world, mankind

B. Conjugation of Verbs

PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE

  1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
paca: to cook
SING. pacati pacasi pacŒmi
PLU. pacanti pacatha pacŒma
       
su: to hear
SING. suöŒti suöŒsi suöŒmi
PLU. suöanti suöŒtha suöŒma
       
disa: to preach
SING. deseti desesi desemi
PLU. desenti desetha desema

 

Verbs:      
K“Āati (k“Āa)   plays
Uppajjati (pada with u)   is born
Passati* (disa)   sees
Vasati (vasa)   dwells
Supati (supa)   sleeps
Vicarati (cara with vi)   wanders, goes about

*"Passa" is a substitute for "disa".

Some Indeclinables:
Ajja   today
Œma   yes
Api   also, too
Ca   also, and
IdŒni   now
Idha   here
KadŒ   when
KasmŒ   why
Kuhiµ   where
Kuto   whence
Na   no, not
Puna   again
SabbadŒ   everyday
SadŒ   always
Saddhiµ*   with

*"Saddhiµ" is used with the "Instrumental" and is placed after the noun; as Narena saddhiµ - with a man.

Illustrations:
1. Mace (loc. s.) supati
  on the bed he sleeps
2. NarŒ gŒmesu (loc. pl) vasanti
  Men in the villages live
3. DŒraka (voc. s.) kuhiµ tvaµ gacchasi?
  child, where are you going?
4. Janaka, ahaµ na gacchŒmi.
  father, I am not going.

Exercise 4-A

1. SakuöŒ rukkhesu vasanti.
2. Kassako mace supati.
3. Mayaµ magge na k“ĀŒma.
4. NarΠloke uppajjanti.
5. Maggika, kuhiµ tvaµ gacchasi?
6. Œma sadŒ te na uggaöhanti.
7. MacchŒ taĀŒke k“Āanti.
8. Kuto tvaµ Œgacchasi? Janaka ahaµ idŒni ŒrŒmasmŒ ŒgacchŒmi.
9. KassakŒ sabbadŒ gŒmesu na vasanti.
10. KasmΠtumhe macesu na supatha?
11. Mayaµ samaöehi saddhiµ ŒrŒme vasŒma.
12. MacchŒ taĀŒkesu ca samuddesu ca uppajjanti.
13. Ahaµ ŒkŒse suriyaµ passŒmi, na ca candaµ.
14. Ajja vŒöijo Œpaöe vasati.
15. KasmŒ tumhe dŒrakehi saddhiµ magge k“Āatha?
16. Œma, idŒni so* 'pi gacchati, aham** 'pi gacchŒmi.
17. MaggikΠmaggesu vicaranti.
18. KassakŒ, kadŒ tumhe puna idha Œgacchatha?
19. Œcariya, sabbadŒ mayaµ Buddhaµ vandŒma.
20. VŒöijŒ maggikehi saddhiµ rathehi gŒmesu vicaranti.

*So + api = so 'pi.

**The vowel following a Niggahita is often dropped, and the Niggahita is changed into the nasal of the group consonant that immediately follows; e.g., Ahaµ + api = aham 'pi.

Exercise 4-B

1. He is playing on the road.
2. The farmers live in the villages.
3. I do not see birds in the sky.
4. The Buddhas are not born in the world everyday.
5. Travellers, from where are you coming now?
6. We see fishes in the ponds.
7. O farmers, when do you come here again?
8. The travellers are wondering in the world.
9. We do not see the sun and the moon in the sky now.
10. Why do not ascetics live always in the mountains?
11. Yes, father, we are not playing in the garden today.
12. Why do not the sick sleep on beds?
13. O merchants, where are you always wandering?
14. Children, you are always playing with the dogs in the tank.
15. Teachers and pupils are living in the monastery now.
16. Yes, they are also going.