An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson III

A. Declension of Nouns ending in "a" (contd.)

Nara
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Ablative narŒ, naramhŒ, narasmŒ narebhi, narehi
  from a man from men
Genitive narassa narŒnaµ
  of a man of men
     
Terminations
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Ablative Œ, mhŒ, smŒ ebhi, ehi
Genitive ssa naµ

 

Masculine Substantives:
īcariya   teacher
Amba   mango
īpaöa   shop, market
īrŒma   temple, garden, park
Assa   horse
MŒtula   uncle
OvŒda   advice, exhortation
Pabbata   rock, mountain
PaööŒkŒra   reward, gift
Rukkha   tree
Sissa   pupil
TaĀŒka   pond, pool, lake

B. Conjugation of Verbs

PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE (contd.)

1st Person Terminations
SINGULAR mi*  
PLURAL ma*  
     
SINGULAR Ahaµ pacŒmi I cook, I am cooking.
PLURAL Mayaµ pacŒma we cook, we are cooking.

*The vowel preceding "mi" and "ma" is always lengthened.

Verbs:      
GaöhŒti* (gaha)   takes, receives, seizes
Sa–gaöhŒti (gaha with saµ)   treats, compiles
UggaöhŒti (gaha with u)   learns
KiöŒti (ki)   buys
VikkiöŒti (ki with vi)   sells
Nikkhamati (kamu with ni)   departs, goes away
Patati (pata)   falls
Ruhati (ruha)   grows
īruhati (ruha with Œ)   ascends, climbs
Oruhati (ruha with ava**)   descends
SunŒti (su)   hears

*Plural - gaöhanti. So are sa–gaöhanti, uggaöhanti, kiöanti and suöanti.

**"Ava" is often changed into "o".

Illustrations:
1. ambΠrukkhasmΠ(abl. s.) patanti
  mangoes from the tree fall
2. rukkhehi (abl. pl.) patŒma
  from trees we fall
3. Œpaöehi (abl. pl.) kiöŒmi
  from the markets I buy
4. ŒpaöŒ (abl. s.) Œpaöaµ (acc. s.)
  from market to market
5. mŒtulassa (gen. s.) ŒrŒmo
  Uncle's garden
6. īcariyŒnaµ (gen. pl.) sissŒ
  of the teachers pupils

Exercise 3-A

1. Ahaµ ŒcariyasmŒ Dhammaµ suöŒmi.
2. Ahaµ mŒtulasmŒ paööŒkŒraµ gaöhŒmi.
3. Ahaµ assasmŒ patŒmi.
4. Ahaµ mŒtulassa ŒrŒmasmŒ nikkhamŒmi.
5. Ahaµ ŒpaöasmŒ ambe kiöŒmi.
6. Mayaµ pabbatasmŒ oruhŒma.
7. Mayaµ Œcariyehi uggaöhŒma.
8. Mayaµ Œcariyassa ovŒdaµ labhŒma.
9. Mayaµ ŒcariyŒnaµ putte saöganhŒma.
10. Mayaµ assŒnaµ ŒhŒraµ Œpaöehi kiöŒma.
11. SissŒ samaöŒnaµ ŒrŒmehi nikkhamanti.
12. Œcariyo mŒtulassa assaµ Œruhati.
13. Mayaµ rathehi gŒmŒ gŒmaµ gacchŒma.
14. Tumhe Œcariyehi paööŒkŒre gaöhŒtha.
15. NarŒ sissŒnaµ dŒsŒnaµ ambe vikkiöanti.
16. Mayaµ samaöŒnaµ ovŒdaµ suöŒma.
17. RukkhΠpabbatasmΠpatanti.
18. Ahaµ suöakhehi taĀŒkaµ oruhŒmi.
19. Mayaµ ŒrŒmasmŒ ŒrŒmaµ gacchŒma.
20. PuttŒ Œdarena janakŒnaµ ovŒdaµ gaöhanti.

Exercise 3-B

1. I receive a gift from the teacher.
2. I depart from the shop.
3. I treat the uncle's teacher.
4. I take the advice of the teachers.
5. I am descending from the mountain.
6. We buy mangoes from the markets.
7. We hear the doctrine of the Buddha from the teacher.
8. We are coming out of the pond.
9. We are mounting the uncle's horse.
10. We fall from the mountain.
11. We treat the father's pupil with affection.
12. Pupils get gifts from the teachers.
13. You are selling a horse to the father's physician.
14. We go from mountain to mountain with the horses.
15. Teachers give advice to the fathers of the pupils.
16. We are learning from the ascetics.