An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson II

A. Declension of Nouns ending in "a" (contd.)

Nara
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Instrumental narena narebhi, narehi
  by or with a man by or with men
Dative narŒya*, narassa narŒnaµ
  to or for a man to or for men
     
Terminations
  SINGULAR PLURAL
Instrumental ena** ebhi**, ehi**
Dative Œya, ssa naµ***

*This form is not frequently used.

**The Instrumental case is also used to express the Auxiliary case (TatiyŒ).

***The vowel preceding "naµ" is always long.

Masculine Substantives:
Œdara   esteem, care, affection
ŒhŒra   food
Daöĥa   stick
DŒsa   slave, servant
GilŒna   sick person
Hattha   hand
Osadha   medicine
Ratha   cart, chariot
Samaöa   holy man, ascetic
Sunakha   dog
Vejja   Doctor, physician

B. Conjugation of Verbs

PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE (contd.)

2nd Person Terminations
SINGULAR si  
PLURAL tha  
     
SINGULAR Tvaµ pacasi you cook, you are cooking*
PLURAL Tumhe pacatha you cook, you are cooking

*"Thou cookest, or thou art cooking." In translation, unless specially used for archaic or poetic reasons, it is more usual to use the plural forms of modern English.

Verbs:      
deseti (disa)   preaches
Deti (dŒ)   gives
Harati (hara)   carries
Œharati (hara with Œ*)   brings
N´harati (hara with n´*)   removes
Paharati (hara with pa*)   strikes
Gacchati (gamu)   goes
Œgacchati (gamu with Œ)   comes
Labhati (labha)   gets, receives
Peseti (pesa)   sends

*Œ, n´, pa, etc. are Prefixes (upasagga) which when attached to nouns and verbs, modify their original sense.

Illustrations:
1. DŒsena (instr. s.) gacchati
  with the slave he goes
2. Vejjebhi (instr pl.) labhasi
  by means of doctors you obtain
3. Sunakhassa (dat. s.) desi
  to the dog you give
4. SamaöŒnaµ (dat. pl.) pesetha
  to the ascetics you send

Exercise 2-A

1. Tvaµ rathena gacchasi.
2. Tvaµ Œdarena Dhammaµ desesi.
3. Tvaµ gilŒnassa osadhaµ desi.
4. Tvaµ daöĥena sunakhaµ paharasi.
5. Tvaµ vejjŒnaµ rathe pesesi.
6. Tumhe Œdarena gilŒnŒnaµ ŒhŒraµ detha.
7. Tumhe dŒsehi gŒmaµ
* gacchatha.
8. Tumhe samanŒnaµ dhammaµ desetha.
9. Tumhe hatthehi osadhaµ labhatha.
10. Tumhe sunakhassa ŒhŒraµ haratha.
11. DŒrakŒ sunakhehi gŒmaµ gacchanti.
12. SèdŒ hatthehi ghaÊe dhovanti.
13. Tumhe gilŒne vejjassa pesetha.
14. DŒso janakassa ŒhŒraµ Œharati.
15. SamaöŒ Œdarena dhammaµ desenti.
16. Tumhe daöĥehi sunakhe paharatha.
17. Vejjo rathena gŒmaµ Œgacchati.
18. DŒrakŒ Œdarena yŒcakŒnaµ ŒhŒraµ denti.
19. Tvaµ samaöehi Buddhaµ vandasi.
20. Tumhe hatthehi osadhaµ n´haratha.

*Verbs implying motion take the Accusative.

Exercise 2-B

1. You are coming with the dog.
2. You are giving medicine to the ascetic.
3. You are sending a chariot to the sick person.
4. You are striking the dogs with sticks.
5. You are preaching the Doctrine to the ascetics.
6. You give food to the servants with care.
7. You are going to the village with the ascetics.
8. You are bringing a chariot for the doctor.
9. The sick are going with the servants.
10. The dogs are running with the children.
11. The Enlightened One is preaching the Doctrine to the sick.
12. The servants are giving food to the beggars.
13. The father is going with the children to the village.
14. You are going in a chariot with the servants.
15. You are carrying medicine for the father.
16. You get medicine through
* the doctor.

*Use the Instrumental case.