CHAPTER II - Mental States (cetasika)
In the 89 types of consciousness, enumerated in the first chapter, 52 mental states arise in varying degree.
There are 7 concomitants common to every consciousness. There are 6 others that may or may not arise in each and every consciousness. They are termed Pakinnaká (Particulars).
All these 13 are designated ańńasamána, a rather peculiar technical term. Ańńa means 'other', samana means 'common'. Sobhanas, (Good), when compared with asobhanas (Evil,) are called ańńa - 'other', being of the opposite category. So are the asobhanas in contradistinction to Sobhanas.
These 13 become moral or immoral according to the type of consciousness in which they occur.
Thus these fifty-two (7 + 6 + 14 + 19 + 6 = 52) are found in the respective types of consciousness in different proportions.
In this chapter all the 52 mental states are enumerated and classified. Every type of consciousness is microscopically analyzed, and the accompanying mental states are given in detail. The type of consciousness in which each mental state occurs, is also described.
To an impatient lay reader this chapter will appear rather dry and uninteresting. To a critical and intelligent reader it will, on the contrary, serve as an intellectual treat.
At the outset, for instance, a student of chemistry may find the numerous chemical formulas somewhat perplexing. But he finds the subject interesting and edifying, when he seriously attempts to analyze and examine the various substances with different tests.
In like manner a student of Abhidhamma who reads this chapter should first try to analyze and examine care fully every type of consciousness and see for himself the mental states thereof according to his own reasoning. Later, he should compare his results with the original text. He will then find this chapter most illuminating, and instead of wasting time in memorizing numbers, he will intelligently grasp the meaning of the text.
For example, let us analyze the first immoral type of consciousness, rooted in attachment.
Somanassa-sahagata - Accompanied by pleasure,
Ditthigata-sampayutta - Connected with misbelief,
Asankhárika - Unprompted.
This consciousness, when analyzed, will show that the vedaná or feeling is pleasure'.
The 7 Universals and all the Particulars are found in it.
The 4 Immoral mental states common to all immorals such as moha (delusion), ahirika (shamelessness), anottappa, (fearlessness), and uddhacca (restlessness) must arise in it.
What about the remaining ten?
Conceit does not arise in lobha consciousness, together with misbelief. Ditthi is connected with wrong view, while mána is concerned with egoism. Both of them, say the commentators, are like two lions that cannot live together in one cave.
Dosa (hatred), issá (envy), macchariya (avarice), and kukkucca (brooding) cannot arise, because these four are akin to aversion. They are found only in hateful consciousness.
Thína and middha - (sloth and torpor) do not arise because this is an unprompted consciousness.
No sobhanas - (beautiful) occur in an immoral consciousness.
Total - 7 + 6 + 4 + 2 = 19.
Thus, on analysis, we see that the first immoral consciousness consists of 19 mental states.
The other types of consciousness should be similarly analyzed.
Cetoyuttá dvipańńása - dhammá cetasiká matá.
§ 1. The fifty-two states that are associated with consciousness, that arise and perish together with consciousness, that have the same object and basis as consciousness, are known as cetasikas (mental states).
1. Cetasika = Ceta + s + ika
That which is associated with mind or consciousness is cetasika. (Sanskrit - caitasika or caitti).
(i) that which arises together with consciousness,
(ii) that which perishes together with it,
(iii) that which has an identical object with it,
(iv) that which has a common basis with it.
Readers will note that the author has not given here a logical definition according to genus and species. Instead he speaks of four characteristic properties of a cetasika. The Commentator cites reasons for attributing these four properties.
No consciousness exists apart from its concomitants. Both consciousness and its respective co-adjuncts arise and perish simultaneously. But there are some material qualities such as vińńatti rúpa* (Modes of Intimation) - that arise and perish simultaneously with the consciousness. To exclude them the third property of having a common object has been attributed. That which possesses these three characteristics must necessarily be endowed with the fourth - a common basis.
*[ Káyavińńatti (mode of action) and Vaci Vińńatti (mode of speech)]
According to Abhidhamma, mind or consciousness is accompanied by fifty-two mental states (cetasikas).
One of them is vedaná (feeling); another is sańńá (perception). The remaining fifty are collectively called sankhárá. Cetaná (volition) is the most important of them.
The whole group of feelings is called vedaná-kkhandha. So are sańńá-kkhandha and sankhára-kkhandha.
(Pakinnaká - 6)
Eva'mete Cetasiká Ańńasamáná'ti veditabbá. (13)
(Akusala - 14)
§ 9. Ettávatá ca -
Sobhaná pańcavísá'ti - dvipańńása pavuccare.
52 Kinds of Mental States
[these 'Universal' cetasikas are in variably found in every consciousness]
§ 2. How ?
These seven mental states are common to every consciousness.
* [Ven. Nyánatiloka suggests impression, or sense-impression consciousness-impression]
[unlike the Universals these cetasikas are found only in certain classes of consciousness]
These six mental states are termed Particulars.
These fourteen mental states are termed 'Immorals'.
These nineteen mental states are termed 'Common to Beautiful.'
These three are termed 'Abstinences.'
These are termed 'Illimitables.'
§ 9. Thus:-
Thus fifty-two have been enumerated.
2. Phassa- Derived from Ö phas, to contact.
For any sense-impression to occur, three things are essential - namely, consciousness, respective sense and the object. For instance, one sees an object with the consciousness through the eye as its instrument.
When an object presents itself to the consciousness through one of the six senses there arises the mental state-contact. "It should not be understood that mere collision is contact (Na sangatimatto eva Phasso).
Like a pillar which acts as a strong support to the rest of the structure, even so is contact to the coexistent mental concomitants.
"Contact means 'it touches' (phusatí'ti). It has touching (phusana) as its salient characteristic (lakkhana), impact (sanghattana) as its function (rasa), coinciding (of the physical basis, object and consciousness) as its manifestation (sannipáta paccupatthána), and the object which has entered the avenue (of awareness) as proximate cause (padatthána)."
Contact is mentioned first because it precedes all other mental states. "Touching by contact, consciousness experiences by feeling, perceives by perception, wills by volition - (Phassena phusitvá, vedanáya vediyati, sańńáya sańjánáti, cetanáya ceteti)". According to Paticca-Samuppáda, too, Contact conditions Feeling. But strictly speaking, there is no reason for the sequence because all these mental states are coexistent. The Atthasálini states - "For of states, arisen in one conscious moment, it is not valid to say that 'this' arises first, 'that' afterwards. The reason is not because contact is a strong support. Contact is just mentioned first in the order of teaching, but it was also permissible to bring it in thus: - There are feeling and contact, perception and contact, volition and contact; there are consciousness and contact, feeling, perception, volition, initial application of mind. In the order of teaching, however, contact is mentioned first. Nor is the sequence of words among the remaining states of any special significance."
"Contact is given priority of place, as standing for the inception of the thought, and as the sine qua non of all the allied states, conditioning them much as the roof-tree of a storeyed house supports all the other combinations of material."
(Mrs. Rhys Davids - Buddhist Psychology, p. 6.)
3. Vedaná - Derived from Ö vid, to experience.
Feeling is a more appropriate rendering for vedaná than sensation. Like contact, feeling is an essential property of every consciousness. It may be pleasurable painful, or neutral. Pain and pleasure pertain to body as well. But physical feeling is not of ethical importance.
According to the commentators feeling is like a master who enjoys a dish prepared by a cook. The latter is compared to the remaining mental states that constitute a thought-complex. Strictly speaking, it is feeling that experiences an object when it comes in contact with the senses.
It is this feeling that experiences the desirable or undesirable fruits of an action done in this or in a previous birth. Besides this mental state there is no soul or any other agent to experience the result of the action.
It should be understood here that Nibbánic bliss is not connected with feeling. Nibbánic bliss is certainly the highest happiness (sukha), but it is the happiness of relief from suffering. It is not the enjoyment of a pleasurable object.
4. Sańńá - Sam + Ö ńá, to know, (Compare Latin cognoscere, to know.)
The meaning of this term widely varies according to the context. To avoid unnecessary confusion, it is best to understand the specific meaning used in the particular connection as a universal mental state.
The chief characteristic of sańńá is the cognition of an object by way of a mark as blue etc. It is sańńá that enables one to recognize an object that has once been perceived by the mind through the senses. "Its procedure is likened to the carpenter's recognition of certain kinds of wood by the mark he had made on each; to the treasurer's specifying certain articles of jewelry by the ticket on each; to the wild animal's discernment in the scarecrow of the work of man."
Sańńá, therefore, means simple sense perception.
"Perception," according to a modern Dictionary of Philosophy, "is the apprehension of ordinary sense-objects, such as trees, houses, chairs, etc., on the occasion of sensory stimulation."
Perception is not used here in the sense employed by early modern philosophers such as Bacon, Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz.
As one of the five khandhas (Aggregates) sańńá is used in the sense of perception.
Could it be that memory is due to this sańńá?
Sańńá, vińńána and pańńá should be differentiated from one another. Sańńá is like the mere perception of a rupee coin by a child. By its whiteness, roundness and size it merely recognizes the coin as a rupee, utterly ignorant of its monetary value. A man, for instance, discerns its value and its utility, but is not aware of its chemical composition. Vińńána is comparable to the ordinary man's knowledge of the rupee. Pańńá is like the analytical knowledge of a chemist who knows all its chemical properties in every detail.
5. Cetaná -
Both cetaná and citta are derived from the same root Ö cit, to think.
In the case of citta - mind or consciousness - the root assumes the meaning of discernment (vijánana), while in cetaná it is used in the sense of co-ordination (abhisandhána) and accumulation (áyúhana).
According to the Atthasálini and Vibhávini Tíká cetaná is that which co-ordinates the mental states associated with itself on the object of consciousness. (Attaná sampayutta-dhamme árammane abhisandahati). Like a chief disciple, or like a carpenter who fulfills his duties and regulates the work of others as well, so does cetaná fulfill its own function and regulate the function of other concomitants associated with itself.
A further explanation has been offered. Cetaná is that which arrives at action in conditioning the conditioned. (Sankhatábhisankharane va byápáram ápajjatí'ti cetaná). Cetaná is that which plays a predominant part in all actions, moral and immoral.
Shwe Zan Aung says that according to Ledi Sayadaw, the Burmese Abhidhamma scholar, "Cetaná acts on its concomitants, acts in getting the object, and acts on accomplishing the task, i.e., determines action." (Compendium, p. 236).
The most significant mental state in the Mundane Consciousness (lokiya) is this cetaná, while in the Supra mundane it is pańńá, wisdom or insight. Mundane thoughts tend to accumulate Kamma. Supra mundane thoughts, on the contrary, tend to eradicate Kamma. Hence cetaná in the supra mundane consciousness does not constitute Kamma. Cetaná in every moral and immoral type of mundane consciousness, on the other hand, is regarded as Kamma. Although Cetaná is found in Vipáka types of consciousness too, it is of no moral significance as it lacks accumulative power.
It is this cetaná that is alluded to as sankhára and (Kamma) bhava in the Paticca Samuppáda. In the pańcakkhandha, by sankhárakkhandha are meant the fifty mental states, excluding vedaná and sańńá, with cetaná as the foremost.
From a psychological standpoint cetaná determines the activities of the mental states associated with it. From an ethical standpoint, it determines its inevitable consequences. Hence where there is no cetaná, there is no Kamma.
6. Ekaggatá -
Eka + agga + tá = one-pointedness, or concentration on one object, or focusing the mind on one object. It is like a steady lamp-flame in a windless place. It is like a firmly fixed pillar that cannot be shaken by the wind. It is like water that binds together several substances to form one concrete compound. This mental state prevents its adjuncts from dissipation and fixes them on one object.
This one-pointedness is one of the five Jhána factors. When it is developed and cultivated it is designated samádhi. "It is the germ of all attentive, selected, focused, or concentrated consciousness." (Compendium, p. 241).
7. Jívitindriya -
Jívita = life; + indriya = controlling faculty or principle.
It is called jívita because it sustains its co-associates.
It is called indriya because it controls its co-associates.
Although cetaná determines the activities of all mental states, it is jívitindriya that infuses life into cetaná and other concomitants.
Jívitindriya is twofold - namely, psychic life (náma-jívitindriya) and physical life (rúpa-jívitindriya). Mental States are vitalized by psychic life, while material phenomena are vitalized by physical life.
As lotuses are sustained by water, an infant is sustained by a nurse, so are mental states and material phenomena sustained by jívitindriya.
One rúpa-jívitindriya lasts for seventeen thought moments. Seventeen náma-jívitindriya arise and perish during the brief life of one rúpa-jívitindriya.
There is a certain kind of rúpa-jívitindriya in plant life. But, rúpa-jívitindriya in men and animals is differentiated from that which exists in plants because the former is conditioned by past Kamma.
Both náma-jívitindriya and rúpa-jívitindriya arise at the moment of conception. They simultaneously perish at the moment of decease. Hence death is regarded as the perishing of this jívitindriya. Immediately after, due to the power of Kamma, another náma-jívitindriya arises in the subsequent birth at the moment of conception. Simultaneous with the arising of the one náma-jívitindriya there arise three rúpa-jívitindriyas in the case of a human being.*
Just as a boatman depends on the boat and the boat depends on the boatman, even so jívitindriya depends on mind and matter, and mind and matter depend on jívitindriya.
*[They are the Rúpa-Jívtindriyas of tho 'body decad' (káyadasaka) 'sex-decad' (bhávadasaka) and 'seat-decad' (vatthudasaka). See ch. VI.]
8. Manasikára -
The literal meaning of the term is 'making in the mind'.
Turning the mind towards the object is the chief characteristic of manasikára. It is like the rudder of a ship, which is indispensable to take her directly to her destination. Mind without manasikára is like a rudderless ship.
Manasikára is also compared to a charioteer that sits with close attention on two well-trained horses (mind and object) as regards their rhythmical movements. Manasikára should be distinguished from vitakka which is to follow. The former directs its concomitants to the object, while the latter applies or throws (pakkhipanto viya) them on the object. Vitakka is like a favorite courtier that introduces a villager (mind) into the presence of a king (object).
Attention is the closest equivalent to manasikára, although the Páli term does not fully connote the meaning attached to the English word from a strictly philosophical standpoint. As a mental state it is mere spontaneous attention. In manasikára, as in attention, there is no peculiar vividness or clarity. To sańńá may be attributed this vividness to some extent.
Could manasikára also be an aid to memory, as it is common to all types of consciousness, whether mundane or supra mundane? Hence they are designated Sabbacitta-sádháraná.
9. Vitakka -
Vi + Ö takk, to think.
It is difficult to suggest a suitable rendering for this Páli term which assumes different meanings in the Suttas and Abhidhamma.
In the Sutta Pitaka it has been employed in the sense of notions, ideas, thoughts, reasoning etc. In the Abhidhamma it is used in a specific technical sense.
'Lifting' of the concomitants to the object (abhiniropana) is its chief characteristic. As someone ascends to the king's palace depending on a king's favorite, relative or friend, likewise consciousness ascends to the object depending on vitakka (Atthasálini, p. 114).
Vitakka may well be defined as the application of the concomitants on the object. Manasikára, as stated above, is the directing of the concomitants to the object. The distinguishing characteristics of these two cetasikas should be clearly understood.
Different values are attached to vitakka when it is used in different connections.
As an ordinary particular (pakinnaká) mental state it is simply called vitakka. When it is developed and cultivated it becomes the foremost factor of the First Jhána. Then it is termed appaná because the mind is steadfastly fixed on the object. The ordinary vitakka simply throws the mind to the surface of the object.
In the subsequent Jhánas vitakka is, however, inhibited, owing to the habitual association with the object.
A villager, for instance, who visits the king's palace for the first time, needs the introduction of a favorite courtier. For his subsequent visits no such introduction is necessary as he is acquainted with the place.
It is this developed appaná-vitakka that is known as samádhi or concentration.
When vitakka is present in the Supra mundane Path Consciousness (lokuttara magga citta) it is termed sammá sankappa (Right Thoughts) because it eliminates wrong thoughts and applies the mind to Nibbána.
Vitakka is used in entirely a different sense when used in connection with the temperaments of individuals. Vitakka carita means one of a discursive temperament. (See Ch. 1. note 38.)
10. Vicára -
Vi + Ö car, to wander.
Like vitakka, vicára too is employed in a technical sense in Abhidhamma.
Vicára is the continued exercise of the mind on the object.
Examination (anumajjana) is its chief characteristic.
So far the renderings for vitakka and vicára are initial and sustained application respectively.
Both terms should be distinguished. Like a bee alighting on a lotus is vitakka, like its gyrating around the lotus is vicára. Like the flapping of a bird about to fly is vitakka, like its planning movements in the sky is vicára. Like the beating of a drum or bell is vitakka, like its reverberation is vicára.
Vicára is also a Jhána factor. It inhibits vicikicchá (Doubt or Indecision). (See Ch. 1. note 39.)
11. Adhimokkha -
Adhi + Ö muc, to release. Literally, the term means 'release-on-to' .
Adhimokkha releases the mind on to the object. Its chief characteristic is decision or choosing, and is opposed to vicikicchá - doubt or indecision.
It makes the decision - 'Just this one'. (imam' evá'ti sannitthánakaranam).
It is compared to a judge that decides a case. It is also compared to a steady pillar owing to its unwavering state.
12. Viriya -
Derived from Ö aj, to go + ír. Ví is substituted for aj. Víra is one who strenuously carries on his work uninterruptedly.
It is defined as the state or action of energetic persons (Víránam bhávo, kammam). Or, it is that which is effected or carried out methodically (Vidhiná írayitabbam pavattetabbam vá).
It has the characteristic of supporting (upatthambana upholding (paggahana), sustaining (ussahana).
As an old house is supported by new pillars even so concomitants are aided and supported by Viriya.
Just as a strong reinforcement would help an army to hold on instead of retreating, even so viriya upholds or uplifts its concomitants.
Viriya is regarded as a controlling factor (indriya) because it overcomes idleness. It is also regarded as one of the five powers (bala) because it cannot be shaken by its opposite idleness. Viriya serves as one of the four means of accomplishing one's ends (iddhi-páda). It is this viriya that appears as Four Modes of Supreme Efforts (samma-ppadhána). Viriya is sublimated as one of the seven factors of Enlightenment (bojjhanga). Finally it has been elevated to one of the eight members of the Noble Path (atthangika-magga) as sammá váyáma (Right-Effort).
Atthasálini states that viriya should be regarded as the root of all achievements.
Effort, exertion, energy are suggested as best equivalents.
13. Píti - See Ch. 1. note 40.
14. Chanda -
Derived from Ö chad, to wish.
The chief characteristic of chanda is the wish-to-do (kattu-kamyatá). It is like the stretching of the hand to grasp an object.
This unmoral chanda should be distinguished from immoral lobha which is clinging to an object.
There are three kinds of chanda namely,
Of them it is kattu-kamyatá chanda, meaning attached to this particular mental state, that serves as one of the four dominant influences (adhipati).
Shwe Zan Aung says - "The effort of conation or will is due to viriya. Píti signifies an interest in the object; chanda constitutes the intention with respect to object.' (Compendium p. 18).
Buddhists have this dhammacchanda for the realization of Nibbána. It is not a kind of craving.
15. Moha -
Derived from Ö muh, to be stupefied, to be deluded. Moha is one of the three roots of evil and is common to all immoral types of consciousness. It is opposed to pańńá - wisdom.
The chief characteristic of moha is confusion with regard to the nature of an object. Moha clouds one's knowledge with regard to Kamma and its consequences and the four Noble Truths.
16. Ahirika -
An abstract noun formed of "a" + hirika.
He who is not ashamed of doing evil is ahiriko. The state of such a person is ahirikkam = ahirikam.
One who has hiri recoils from evil just as a cock's feather shrinks in front of fire. One who has no hiri, would commit any evil without the least compunction.
17. Anottappa -
Na + ava + Ö tapp, to be tormented.
Ottappa is fear to do evil, i.e., fear of the Consequences.
Anottappa is its opposite and is compared to a moth that is singed by fire. A person who is afraid of fire would not touch it, but a moth, unaware of the consequences, attracted by fire, would get burnt. In the same way a person without ottappa would commit evil and suffer in states of woe.
Both these terms - hiri and ottappa - are found in conjunction. Hiri should be differentiated from ordinary shyness and ottappa from ordinary fear of any individual. Fear is regarded as one of the ten armies of Mára. A Buddhist is not expected to be afraid of any individual, even a God, for Buddhism is not based on the fear of the unknown.
Hiri arises from within, and ottappa from without. Suppose, for instance, there is a piece of iron, one end of which is heated, and the other smeared with filth. The filthy end one would not touch owing to disgust, and the other end through fear. Hiri is compared to the former and ottappa to the latter.
The following note by Mrs. Rhys Davids on hiri and ottappa clearly depicts the difference between these relative mental constituents:-
"Hiri and ottappa, as analyzed by Buddhaghosa present points of considerable ethical interest. Taken together they give us the emotional and conative aspect of the modern notion of conscience, just as sati represents its intellectual side. The former term 'is equivalent to shame (lajjá),' the latter to 'anguish (ubbego) over evildoing.' Hiri has its source within; ottappa spring from without. Hiri is autonomous (attádhipati); ottappa, heteronomous, influenced by society (lokádhipati). The former is established on shame; the latter on dread. The former is marked by consistency; the latter by discernment of the danger and fearsomeness of error. The subjective source of hiri is fourfold, viz., the idea of what is due to one's birth, age, worth, and education. Thus, one having hiri will think 'Only mean folk (fishers etc.) children, poor wretches, the blind and ignorant, would do such an act,' and refrains. The external source of ottappa is, the idea that 'the body of the faithful will blame you,' and hence one refrains. If a man has hiri, he is, as said the Buddha, his own best master. To one who is sensitive by way of ottappa, the masters of the faith are the best guides."
In a supplementary paragraph the 'marks' (consistency etc.) are thus explained: 'In hiri one reflects on the worth of one's birth, one's teacher, one's estate, and one's fellow students. In ottappa one feels dread at self-reproach, the blame of others, chastisement, and retribution in another life."
(Buddhist Psychology, p. 20).
Hiri and ottappa are regarded as the two dominant factors that rule the world. No civilized society can exist without them.
18. Uddhacca -
U = up, above, + Ö Dhu, to waver, to shake off.
Uddhutassa bhávo Uddhuccam = Uddhaccam - state of throwing up. It is compared to the disturbed state of a heap of ashes when hit with a stone. It is the unsettled state of mind, and is opposed to collectedness (vupasama). As one of the five Hindrances it is the antithesis of sukha, happiness.
In some rare instances uddhacca is used in the sense of puffed-up state of mind, corresponding to conceit. Here it is not used in that sense. As a rule uddhacca is differentiated from mána because both of them are treated as samyojanas (Fetters).
These four, viz., moha, ahirika, anottappa, uddhacca - that head the list of Immoral cetasikas - are common to all Immoral types of consciousness.
19. Lobha - See Ch. 1, note 9.
20. Ditthi. - See Ch. 1, note 11.
The difference between moha and ditthi should be noted. The former clouds the object; the latter deals with one's views, such as "this indeed is truth, and the rest is false". Ditthi is opposed to ńána, wisdom. The former rejects the real nature and views wrongly. The latter discerns the object as it is.
When the Páli term ditthi is used alone, unqualifyingly, it is employed in the sense of micchá ditthi - wrong belief.
Sammá ditthi or amoha is used as the antithesis of moha.
21. Mána - Derived from Ö man, to think.
22. Dosa - See Ch. 1, note 9.
23. Issá - Derived from i + Ö su, to be envious, to be jealous.
It has the characteristic of envying others' success and prosperity. As such it is objective.
24. Macchariya -
Maccharassa bhávo - the state of an avaricious person.
Commentary gives another explanation:-
'Let not this wonder be to others, but to myself'.
(Má idam acchariyam ańńesam hotu, mayham'ev hotu).
The chief characteristic of macchariya is the concealment of one's prosperity. Contrary to issá, this is subjective.
Both issá and macchariya are regarded as the friends of dosa because each of them arises with it.
25. Kukkucca -
Kukatassa bhávo = kukkuccam = the state of having done amiss.
According to the commentary evil that is done is ku + kata, and so is good that is not done. Remorse over the evil that is done is kukkucca, and so is remorse over the good that is not done.
It has the characteristic of grieving over the evil that is done and the good that is not done.
"What is worry?"
"Consciousness of what is lawful in something that is unlawful, consciousness of what is unlawful in something that is lawful; consciousness of what is immoral in something that is moral; consciousness of what is moral in something that is immoral - all this sort of worry, fidgeting, over-scrupulousness, remorse of conscience, mental sacrificing - this is what is called worry".
(Buddhist Psychology - p. 313).
Kukkucca is one of the five Hindrances and is used together with uddhacca. It pertains to past things only.
According to Vinaya, kukkucca is healthy doubt with regard to rules, and is commended. According to Abhidhamma, on the contrary, it is repentance which is not commended.
26. Thína - Derived from Ö the, to shrink, + na. Thena = thána = thína.
It is the shrinking state of the mind like a cock's feather before fire. It is opposed to viriya. Thína is explained as citta - gelańńam, sickness of the mind.
As such it is the antithesis of citta-kammańńatá, adaptability of the mind, one of the sobhana cetasikas.
27. Middha - Derived from Ö middh, to be inactive, to be inert, to be incapable.
This is the morbid state of the mental factors.
Both thína and middha are always used in conjunction, and are one of the five Hindrances. They are inhibited by vitakka, initial application, one of the Jhána factors. Middha, too, is opposed to viriya. Where there are thína and middha there is no viriya.
Middha is explained as the káya-gelańńa, sickness of the mental body. Here body is not used in the sense of material form, but is applied to the body of mental factors, viz., vedaná, sańńá and sankhára (feeling, perception, and the remaining fifty mental factors). Hence middha is the antithesis of káya-kammańńatá, adaptability of mental factors.
Both thína and middha are explained in the Dhammasangani as follows:-
"What is stolidity (thína)?"
"That which is indisposition, unwieldiness of intellect, adhering and cohering; clinging, cleaving to, stickiness; stolidity, that is, a stiffening, a rigidity of the intellect - this is called stolidity.
"What is torpor (middha)?"
"That which is indisposition, unwieldiness of sense, a shrouding, enveloping, barricading within; torpor that which is sleep, drowsiness; sleep, slumbering, somnolence this is called torpor".
(Buddhist Psychology, pp. 311, 312).
28. Vicikicchá - See Ch. 1, note 13.
Vicikicchá, as a Hindrance, does not mean doubts with regard to the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, etc.,
Majjhima Nikáya commentary states - "it is so called because it is incapable of deciding that it is as such."
(Idam'ev'idanti nicchetum asamatthabhávato'ti vicikicchá).
29. Saddhá - Sam, well; + Ö dah, to establish, to place, to put.
Sanskrit sraddhá is composed of Srat = faith + Ö dha to establish.
According to Páli, saddhá is well-established confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma, and the Sangha. Purification (sampasádana) of its mental associates is its chief characteristic. It is compared to the water-purifying gem of the universal monarch. This particular gem, when thrown into water, causes mud and water-weeds to subside. The water is consequently purified. In the same way saddhá purifies the mind of its stains.
This saddhá is not blind faith. It is confidence based on knowledge.
One might question whether a non-Buddhist could also possess this saddhá.
Atthasálini raises this very question and provides an answer which is rather unsatisfactory and inadequate.
"Do men of false opinions not believe in their own teachers?" questions Venerable Buddhaghosa. His answer is:-
"They do. But that is not saddhá, it is a mere acquiescence in words (vacana-sampaticchana-mattameva)".
If saddhá is limited only to Buddhists, what shall we say when a non-Buddhist places his faith or confidence in his teacher? Surely his mind also gets purified to some extent when he thinks of his particular religious teacher.
Could it be ditthi - false view? Then it is immoral (akusala). In such a case there is no occasion for a non-Buddhist to experience a moral consciousness.
Would it not be more correct to say that saddhá is mere confidence or faith, instead of restricting it to the Triple Gem?
Dhammasangani explains saddhá as follows:-
"The faith which on that occasion is trusting in, the professing confidence in, the sense of assurance, faith, faith as a faculty and as a power".
(Buddhist Psychology, p. 14.)
Saddhá is also apprehension intuitively of experience or knowledge gathered in past births.
30. Sati - Derived from Ö sar, to remember.
Sati does not exactly correspond to the Western conception of memory. Mindfulness is a better equivalent for sati. It has to be developed. In the Satipatthána Sutta are described in detail various methods to develop this sati. When it is highly developed one acquires the power of remembering past births. It is this sati that is regarded as one of the factors of the Noble Eightfold Path.
Sati tends to present before oneself good things without allowing them to be forgotten. Its chief characteristic is 'not floating away' (apilápana). Unlike pumpkins and pots that float on water, sati plunges into the object of thought.
It should be noted that this particular sati is not found in immoral types of consciousness.
What is found in immoral consciousness is micchá sati (wrong mindfulness).
Dhammasangani explains sati as follows:-
"The mindfulness which on that occasion is recollecting, calling back to mind; the mindfulness which is remembering, bearing in mind, the opposite of superficiality and of obliviousness; mindfulness as faculty; mindfulness as power, right mindfulness".
(Buddhist Psychology, p. 16).
Commenting on sati, Mrs. Rhys Davids says:-
"Buddhaghosa's comment on sati, in which he closely follows and enlarges on the account in Mil. 37, 38, shows that the traditional conception of that aspect of consciousness had much in common with the Western modern theory of conscience or moral sense. Sati appears under the metaphor of an inward mentor, discriminating between good and bad and prompting choice. Hardy went so far as to render it by 'conscience', but this slurs over the interesting divergence's between Eastern and Western thought. The former is quite unmystical of the subject of sati. It takes the psychological process or representative functioning (without bringing out the distinction between bare memory and judgment), and presents the same under an ethical aspect".
(Buddhist Psychology, p. 16).
31. Hiri & Ottappa - See ahirika and anottappa
32. Alobha -
This is opposed to lobha (See Ch. 1 note 9).
Dána or generosity is implied thereby. This is a positive virtue involving active altruism. It is one of the three roots of good. Like a drop of water that runs off a lotus leaf without adhering to it, non-adhesion to an object is its chief characteristic.
33. Adosa -
This is opposed to dosa (See Ch. 1 note 9). It is not mere absence of hatred or aversion, but is a positive virtue.
Adosa is synonymous with mettá, Loving-kindness, which is one of the four sublime abodes (brahma-vihára).
Readers will note that in enumerating the sublime abodes only two are mentioned, viz. - karuná and muditá. The reason being that mettá is implied by this adosa; and upekkhá by tatramajjhattatá, equanimity.
Adosa is also one of the three roots of good. Like an agreeable friend, absence of churlishness or coarseness (candikka) is its chief characteristic.
34. Three Roots of Good: -
Alobha, adosa and amoha are the three roots of good. Amoha is not mentioned amongst the nineteen Beautiful cetasikas because it is implied by pańńá - wisdom.
Atthasálini gives a vivid description of these three virtues as follows:
"Of these three, alobha has the characteristic of non-adhesion of the mind to an object, or of not sticking like a drop of water on a lotus leaf. Its function is non-appropriation like an emancipated Bhikkhu (Arahat). Its manifestation is detachment like a man fallen in filth.
"Adosa has the characteristic of non-churlishness or non-resentment like an agreeable friend. Its function is the suppression of annoyance or feverishness like sandal wood. Its manifestation is loveliness like the full moon. The characteristic, function, etc., of amoha have been explained in connection with the term pańńindriya (Faculty of Wisdom). Of these three, again, alobha is opposed to the taint of selfishness, adosa to that of impurity (dussílya), amoha to the non-development of moral conditions.
"Alobha is the cause of generosity, adosa of morality, amoha of meditation.
"Through alobha what is in excess is not taken, for the greedy take what is in excess. Through adosa what is not less is taken, for the hateful take what is less. Through amoha what is unperverted is taken, for the deluded take what is perverted. Through alobha, one regards a manifest fault as such and admits it, but the greedy conceal it. Through adosa one regards a manifest virtue as such and admits it, but the hateful efface it. Through amoha, one regards what really is as such and admits it, but the deluded regard what is false as true, and what is true as false.
"Through alobha there is no sorrow arising from separation of the beloved, for affection is the intrinsic nature of the greedy as well as the inability to bear the separation from the beloved. Through adosa there arises no sorrow from association with the unbeloved since disagreeableness is the intrinsic nature of the hateful as well as the inability to bear the association with the unbeloved. Through amoha there arises no sorrow from not getting what one desires, for it is the intrinsic nature of the deluded to think - 'From where could it be got?' etc.
"Through alobha there arises no sorrow from rebirth, since the former is opposed to craving and the latter is the root of craving. Through adosa there arises no sorrow from decay, since the intensely hateful become quickly aged. Through amoha there is not sorrow from death, for a bewildered death is painful. There is no such death for the undeluded.
"There is harmonious living to the lay people through alobha, to the recluses through amoha, and to all through adosa.
"In particular through alobha there is no rebirth in the plane of Petas, since beings are generally born amongst Petas through craving. Alobha is the antithesis of craving. Through adosa there is no rebirth in the niraya (Woeful State). Through hate, which is of a churlish nature, beings are born in woeful states resembling hatred. Adosa is the antithesis of hatred. Through amoha there is no rebirth in the animal plane. Due to utter delusion through ignorance, beings are born amongst animals. Amoha is the antithesis of ignorance.
"Of them alobha dissuades attraction from lust; adosa from recoiling through hate; amoha from stolid indifference through ignorance.
Moreover through these three there arise respectively these three notions - those of renunciation, non-anger and harmlessness; and those of loathsomeness, immeasurableness, and fundamental elements (dhátu).
"Through alobha the extreme of indulgence in sensual pleasures is inhibited: through adosa that of self-mortification. Through amoha there is training according to the Middle Path.
"Similarly through alobha the bodily bond of covetousness (abhijjhá káyagantha) is destroyed, through adosa that of ill-will, and through amoha the remaining two.
"The first two states of mindfulness are accomplished by the power of the first two, and the last two by the power of the third.
"Herein alobha is conducive to health, for the unattached person does not resort to what is attractive but suitable - hence health ensues. Adosa is conducive to youthfulness, for the unhateful person remains young for a long time, being not burnt by the fire of anger which causes wrinkles and grey hair. Amoha is conducive to longevity of life, for the undeluded person, distinguishing between what is agreeable and disagreeable, avoids the latter and adopts the former and lives long.
"Alobha is conducive to the acquisition of wealth, for by generosity wealth is obtained. Adosa is conducive to the acquisition of friends, for by loving-kindness friends are won and are not lost.
"Amoha is conducive to personal achievements, for the undeluded person, doing only what is beneficial to himself, regulates his own self.
"Alobha is conducive to divine life, adosa to Brahma life, and amoha to Aryan life.
"Through alobha one is at peace with his acquisition of wealth amongst beings and things belonging to one's party, for through their destruction there is no grief caused to him by excessive attachment. Through adosa amongst those belonging to other parties he is happy, for the non inimical person is devoid of the feeling of ill-will even amongst the hostile. Through amoha he is happy amongst those who belong to a neutral party, for the undeluded person is devoid of all attachment.
"Through alobha there is insight into impermanence, for the greedy person does not see impermanence in things that are impermanent, owing to his desire for enjoyment. Through adosa there is insight into suffering for one with a loving-disposition has abandoned that grasping, the cause of vexation, and sees things as sorrowful. Through amoha there is insight into soullessness, for the undeluded person is skillful in understanding things as they truly are. He sees the guideless fivefold group as guideless.
"As insight into impermanence and so on is brought about by these three states, so are these states brought about by insight into impermanence and so on.
"Through insight into impermanence there is alobha; through insight into sorrow, adosa; through insight into soullessness, amoha.
"Who indeed knowing well that this is impermanent would develop a desire for it? Who indeed perceiving ill in things would develop another ill caused by exceedingly violent anger? Who indeed realizing the emptiness of a soul would again fall into utter delusion?
(Atthasálini - pp. 137-139. See The Expositor Vol. i, pp. 167-170).
35. Tatramajjhattatá -
Lit., tatra = there, i.e., with respect to objects majhattatá = middleness, that is, equipoise.
Impartial view of objects is its chief characteristic. It is compared to a charioteer who views equally a pair of well-trained horses.
Tatramajjhattatá and upekkhá (equanimity) are sometimes used as synonymous terms. It is this tatramajjhattatá that is regarded as upekkhá of the four Sublime abodes. Hence upekkhá does not occur amongst the Sublime abodes. It is this tatramajjhattatá that is raised to the dignity of a Bojjhanga, one of the seven factors of Enlightenment. Tatra-majjhattatá has also to be distinguished from hedonic upekkhá or indifference. At times both these mental states simultaneously arise in the same consciousness, e.g., in all upekkhá-sahagata kusala cittas.
This tatramajjhattatá is regarded both as an intellectual and ethical upekkhá (See Ch. 1. note, 42).
36. Káya Passaddhi & Citta-Passaddhi-
Passaddhi is composed of pa+Ö sambh, to calm, to be tranquil.
Passambh + ti = passadhti = passaddhi.
Passaddhi is tranquillity, calmness, quietude, serenity.
The chief characteristic of passaddhi is the suppression or the allaying of feverishness of passions (kilesadarathavúpasama). It is like the cool shade of a tree to a person affected by the sun's heat. Passaddhi is opposed to uddhacca, restlessness, or excitement. When highly developed it becomes a factor of Enlightenment (bojjhanga).
This tranquillity is twofold, viz., tranquillity of káya and citta. Here káya is not used in the sense of material body. It is the body of psychic factors - namely, vedaná (feeling), sańńá (perception), and sankhára (mental states). It should be understood that káya is used in the same sense in the subsequent cetasikas. Citta connotes the whole consciousness. The difference therefore lies between psychic factors and consciousness as a whole. The same explanation applies to the other pairs as well.
37. Káya-Lahutá & Citta-Lahutá -
Derived from laghu, light, quick. (Skt. laghutá). Lahutá is bouyancy or lightness. Suppression of the heaviness of the mind and mental factors is its chief characteristic. It is like the laying down of a heavy burden. It is opposed to thína and middha - sloth and torpor - which cause heaviness and rigidity in mental factors and consciousness.
38. Káya-Mudutá & Citta-Mudutá -
The chief characteristic of mudutá is the suppression of stiffness and resistance. It removes stiffness and becomes pliable in receiving objects. It is compared to a skin that is well moulded by applying oil, water etc. It is opposed to false views and conceit (ditthi and mána) which cause stiffness.
39. Káya-Kammańńatá & Citta-Kammańńatá -
Kamma + nya + tá = Kammanyatá = Kammańńyatá. Lit., workableness or serviceableness.
Its chief characteristic is the suppression of unserviceableness or unworkableness of consciousness and its factors. It is like a heated metal made fit for any use. It is opposed to all the remaining Hindrances. Atthasálini states that these two allied concomitants produce serenity (pasáda) in propitious things, and are adaptable like pure gold, for beneficial works.
40. Káya-Páguńńatá & Citta-Páguńńatá -
This is proficiency or skillfulness. Its chief characteristic is the suppression of sickness of mind and its concomitants. It is opposed to such passions as faithlessness etc.
41. Káyujjukatá & Cittujjukatá -
This is straightness or rectitude, and is opposed to crookedness, deception and craftiness. Its chief characteristic is straightness.
42. All these 19 concomitants are common to all types of moral consciousness, unlike the immoral concomitants which do not arise in an immoral consciousness in toto. No moral consciousness arises without all of them. Along with this 'Beautiful' group some other moral concomitants may arise according to the type of consciousness.
43. Virati -
Vi + Ö ram, to delight in. Virati is refraining from, delighting in, i.e., abstinence.
According to the Atthasálini there are three kinds of virati - namely, sampatta-virati, samádána-virati, and samuccheda-virati.
Sampatta-virati is abstaining from evil as occasion arises considering one's birth, age, education, etc.
Samádána-virati is abstaining from evil in accordance with one's observances. For example, a Buddhist would abstain from killing, stealing, etc., as he observes the precepts not to kill, etc.
Samuccheda-virati is the abstinence of an Aryan Disciple by completely eradicating all the roots of evil.
In the case of the former two, violation of good principles is possible; but in the case of Arahats it is not, because they have destroyed all passions.
Here are enumerated three Abstinences pertaining to wrong speech, wrong actions, and wrong livelihood.
Strictly speaking, these three mental concomitants collectively arise only in the Supra mundane consciousness (lokuttara citta). In other cases they arise separately because there are three cetanás.
These three when present in the lokuttara citta are regarded as Factors of the Path (magganga), and they constitute síla (Morality). Sammá-ditthi and sammá sankappa which constitute pańńá (Wisdom) are implied by pańńindriya and vitakka-cetasikas respectively. Sammá váyáma, sammá sati, and sammá samádhi which constitute samádhi, (Concentration) are implied by viriya, sati, and ekaggatá cetasikas respectively.
Sammá vácá deals with abstinence from false speech (musáváda), slandering (pisuna-vácá), harsh speech (pharusa-vácá) and frivolous talk (sampapphalápa).
Sammá kammanta deals with abstinence from killing (pánátipáta), stealing (adinnádána), and sexual misconduct (kámesu micchácára).
Sammá ájíva deals with abstinence from selling poison, intoxicants, weapons, slaves and animals for slaughter.
44. Appamańńá -
As the object of these virtues is the infinite number of beings, they are called appamańńá, lit., illimitable (Skt. aprámánya). They are also called brahma vihára -Sublime Modes of Living.
Mettá, karuná, muditá, and upekkhá are these four illimitables.
As explained above mettá and upekkhá are represented by adosa and tatra-majjhattatá. Hence only two are mentioned here.
45. Mettá -
Derived from Ö mid, to soften, to love. According to Sanskrit mitrasya bhávah = maitri; state of a friend. That which softens the mind, or friendly disposition is mettá.
Goodwill, benevolence, loving-kindness are suggested as the best renderings. Mettá is not carnal love or affection. The direct enemy of mettá is hatred or ill-will (kodha), its indirect enemy is affection (pema). Mettá embraces all beings without exception. The culmination of mettá is the identification of oneself with all beings (sabbattatá).
Mettá is the sincere wish for the good and welfare of all. It discards ill-will.
Benevolent attitude is its chief characteristic.
46. Karuná -
Ö Kar, to do, to make + uná.
That which makes the hearts of the good quiver when others are afflicted with sorrow is karuná. That which dissipates the sufferings of others is karuná.
The wish for the removal of sufferings of others is its chief characteristic. Its direct enemy is wickedness (himsá) and its indirect enemy is grief (domanassa). Karuná embraces sorrow-afflicted beings. It discards cruelty.
47. Muditá -
Derived from Ö mud, to be pleased.
It is not mere sympathy but appreciative joy. Its direct enemy is jealousy and its indirect enemy is exultation (pahása). Its chief characteristic is happy acquiescence in others' prosperity (anumodaná). Muditá embraces prosperous beings. It discards dislike (arati), and it is the congratulatory attitude of a person.
48. Upekkhá -
Upa = impartially, justly + Ö ikkh, to see, to view, to look.
Upekkhá is to view impartially, i.e., neither with attachment nor with aversion. It is the balanced state of mind. Its direct enemy is passion (rága), and its indirect enemy is unintelligent indifference. Attachment and aversion are eliminated by upekkhá. Impartial attitude is its chief characteristic.
Here upekkhá does not mean mere neutral feeling, but a sterling virtue is implied thereby. Equanimity is the closest equivalent. That term, too, conveys only one aspect of upekkhá. (See Ch. 1, notes 10, 42). It is this upekkhá that is elevated to a bojjhanga factor.
Upekkhá embraces all good and bad ones, loved and unloved ones, agreeable and disagreeable things, pleasure and pain and all such similar opposite pairs.
49. The following illuminating note by Mrs. Rhys Davids on these four virtues is well worth reading.
"On these four great exercises, see Rhys Davids, S. B. E. xi 201, n.; and on their emancipating efficacy, M. i. 38. Buddhaghosa again refers to the reader to his Visuddhi Magga for a more detailed commentary (vide chap. ix, and cf. Hardy, 'Eastern Monachism', p . 243 et seq. )... The object of thought (árammana) in this connection will be 'limited' if the student dwells in love etc., on but a restricted number of beings; 'infinite' if his heart embraces vast numbers.
'The commentator has not a little to say in the present work, however, on the nature and mutual relations of the 'Abodes' (pp. 193-195). First, the characteristics of each are fully set forth, together with their false manifestation (vipatti). Clinging (sinehasambhavo) is the vipatti of love, the essential mark of which is the carrying on of beneficent conduct etc. Tears and the like are less truly characteristic of pity (karuná) than is the bearing and relieving the woes of others. Laughter and the like are less genuine expressions of sympathy (muditá) than is appreciation of what others have achieved. And there is a condition of disinterestedness (upekkhá) which is prompted by ignorance, and not by that insight into the karma of mankind which can avail to calm the passions.
"He next designates the four antisocial attitudes which are to be extirpated by these ethical disciplines taken in order - ill-will (vyápáda), cruelty (vihesá), aversion (arati), and passion (rága) - and shows how each virtue has also a second vice opposed to it. This he terms its near enemy, as being less directly assailed by it than its ethical opposite, the latter resembling an enemy who has to lurk afar in the jungle and the hills. Love and vengeful conduct cannot coexist. To prevail in this respect, let love be developed fearlessly. But where love and its object have too much in common, love is threatened by lust. On this side let love be guarded well. Again the near enemy to pity, more insidious than cruelty, is the self-pity pining for what one has not got or has lost - a low, profane melancholy. And the corresponding worldly happiness in what one has, or in consequence of obliviousness as to what one has lost, lies in wait to stifle appreciation of the good fortune of others. Lastly, there is the unintelligent indifference of the worldling who has not triumphed over limitations nor mastered cause and effect, being unable to transcend external things.
"The remainder of his remarks are occupied with the necessary sequence in the four Abodes, and the importance of observing method in their cultivation, and finally with their other technical appellation of appamańńá or infinitudes. In this connection he repeats the touching illustration given in Hardy (op. Cit., 249) of the mother, and the four children. Her desire for the growth of the infant is as mettá; for the recovery of the sick child as karuná; for the maintenance of the gifts displayed by the youth as muditá; while her care not to hinder the career of her grown-up son is as upekkhá.
"It may be remarked, by the way, that when Hardy with a foreigner's want of muditá calumniates the Buddhist mendicant (p. 250) as one who thinks about the virtues of solidarity without practicing them, he quite forgets that these exercises are but preparations of the will for that ministering to the intellectual need of others to which the recluse's life was largely devoted, and the importance of which the Western, in his zeal for material forms of charity, does not even now appreciate at its real value. And Buddhism did not believe in giving the rein to good impulses unregulated by intellectual control".
(Buddhist Psychology, pp- 65-37).
50. Pańńindriya -
Pa = rightly; ńá, to know, pańńá, literally, means right knowing.
Its chief characteristic is understanding as it really is, or irresistible understanding, i.e., penetrative knowledge (Yathásabháva-pativedho vá akkhalita-pativedho).
As pańńá dominates in understanding the real nature and as it overcomes ignorance, it is called a controlling faculty (indriya).
In Abhidhamma ńána, pańńá, and amoha are used as interchangeable terms. In types of consciousness connected with knowledge (ńána-sampayutta) the reference is to this pańńá. By amoha, one of the three moral roots, is also meant this pańńá. As one of the four means of accomplishing one's ends (iddhi-páda) it assumes the name of vímamsá (lit., examination). When purified by samádhi, pańńá assumes the honorable role of abhińńá (higher knowledge). Highly developed pańńá is elevated to the state of a bojjhanga-dhamma-vicaya (Investigation of the Truth) and magganga-sammá ditthi, Right View. The culmination of pańńá is the Omniscience of a Buddha.
Pańńá, in the strictest sense of the term, is seeing things as they truly are, i.e., in the light of anicca (impermanence), dukkha (sorrow), and anattá (soullessness).
Reason, intellect, insight, knowledge, wisdom, intelligence - all convey some aspects of pańńá, but none of them exactly corresponds to the Páli term. Both knowledge and wisdom are employed here according to the context.
Mrs. Rhys David's comment on this important term is interesting. She writes:-
"To fit the term pańńá with its approximate European equivalent is one of the cruxes of Buddhist philosophy. I have tried in turn reason, intellect, insight, science, understanding and knowledge. All of these have been, and are, used in the literature of philosophy with varying shades of connotation, according as the sense to be conveyed is popular and vague, psychological and precise or transcendental and - passez-moi le mot - having precise vagueness.
And each of them might, with one implication or another, represent pańńá. The main difficulty in choice lay in determining whether, to the Buddhist, pańńá stood for mental function, or for the aggregate product of certain mental functioning, or for both. When all the allusions to pańńá in the Sutta Pitaka have been collated, a final translation becomes possible. Here it must suffice to quote two. M i. 292, he who has pańńá (pańńavá) is declared in virtue thereof to understand (pajánáti) the nature of the phenomenon of pain or ill (the Four Noble Truths). In D. i. 124 Gotama asks: what is this pańńá? and himself sets out its content as consisting in certain intellectual attainments, viz., the Jhánas, insight into the nature of impermanence, the mental image of one's self, the power of iddhi, the cosmic Ear, insight into other minds, into one's own past lives, the cosmic Eye, and the elimination of all vitiating tendencies. Buddhaghosa also (Visuddhi Magga Ch. XIV,) distinguishes pańńá from sańńá and vińńána. He describes it as adequate to discern not only what these can, viz., sense-objects and the Three Marks (impermanence, pain and non-substantiality) respectively, but also the path. For him, then, it might be called intellect 'at a higher power'. And in Gotama's reply, all those terms are described in terms of intellectual process. Nevertheless, it is clear that the term did not stand for bare mental process of a certain degree of complexity, but that it also implied mental process as cultivated in accordance with a certain system of concepts objectively valid for all Buddhist adepts. Hence I think it best to reject such terms as reason, intellect, and understanding, and to choose wisdom, or science, or knowledge, or philosophy. Only they must be understood in this connection as implying the body of learning as assimilated and applied by the intellect of a given individual".
(Buddhist Psychology. pp. 17-18).
Different Combinations of Mental States
*[ cittáviyutta - Lit., inseparable from consciousness, i.e., Cetasikas-mental states]
**[ cittuppádo - Lit., genesis of consciousness. Here the compound term applies to consciousness alone; in other cases both to consciousness and its adjuncts]
§ 3. The combination of each of these thought-adjuncts in different types of consciousness will hereafter be dealt with accordingly.
Seven are linked with every type of consciousness. The (six) Particulars are linked accordingly. The fourteen are linked only with the Immorals, the (nineteen) Beautiful, only with the Beautiful.
§ 4. Katham?
Sabbacitta-sádháraná táva satta cetasiká sabbesu'pi ek'únanavuti-cittuppádesu labbhanti.
(b) Vicáro pana tesu c'eva ekádasasu dutiyajjhánacittesu c'áti chasatthi
(c) Adhimokkho dvipańcavińńánavicikicchávajjita-cittesu .
(d) Viriyam pańcadvárávajjana-dvipańcavińńana-sampaticchana-
(e) Píti domanass'upekkhásahagata-káyavińńánacatutthajjhána-
(f) Chando ahetuka-momúhavajjitacittesu labbhati.
4. In what way ?
In the first place, the seven mental states common to every consciousness are found in all the eighty-nine types of consciousness.
Among the "Particular" mental states:-
(a) "Initial Application"* arises in fifty-five types of consciousness, to wit;
b) "Sustained Application" arises in sixty-six types of consciousness, to wit: In those fifty-five and in the eleven types of second Jhána consciousness. (55 + 11 = 66).
(c) "Decision" arises in all types of consciousness, excluding the twice fivefold sense-consciousness and consciousness, accompanied by "Doubt". (89 - 11 = 78).
(d) "Effort" arises in all types of consciousness, excluding the sense-door directing consciousness, twice fivefold sense-consciousness, receiving consciousness, and investigating consciousness. (89 - 11 = 73).
(e) "Joy'' arises in all types of consciousness, excluding those accompanied by displeasure, and indifference (equanimity), body-consciousness,* and the fourth Jhána consciousness. (121 - (2 + 55 + 2 + 11) = 51).
*[Body-consciousness - viz., that which is accompanied by pain and that by bliss (dukkha and sukha)]
(f) "Conation" arises in all types of consciousness, excluding the ahetukas and the two modes of consciousness accompanied by delusion. (89 - 20 = 69).
§ 5. Those types of consciousness in order are:
(b) Lobho atthasu lobhasahagatesv'eva labbhati.
(c) Ditthi oatusu ditthigatasampayuttesu.
(d) Máno catusu ditthigatavippayuttesu.
(e) Doso, Issá, Macchariyam, Kukkuccam ca dvísu patighacittesu.
(f) Thínam, Middham pańcasu sasankhárikacittesu.
(g) Vicikicchá vicikicchásahagatacittey'eva labbhatí'tí.
Vicikicchá vicikicchácitte c'áti catuddasa
Dvádasákusalesv'eva - sampayujjanti pańcadhá
Immoral Mental States
(*1) The root of every evil is moha (ignorance), because the evil-doer is not aware of the evil consequences. With it are associated shamelessness to commit the evil and disregard for the effects that follow. There is a certain amount of restlessness of the mind when an evil is committed.]
(*2) As ditthi gives rise to the conception of "me" and "mine connected with oneself, it occurs in the consciousness rooted in attachment]
(*3) Mána too originates with the "I" - conception connected with oneself. As such it also is present only in types of consciousness rooted in attachment. Nevertheless, both ditthi and mána do not arise simultaneously in one particular consciousness. Where there is ditthi there is no mána. Commentaries compare them to two fearless lions that cannot live in one den. Mána may arise in those four types of consciousness dissociated with ditthi. But it does not follow that mána is ever present in them.]
(*4) These four cannot arise in a consciousness rooted in attachment because there is some form of aversion in them instead of any of clinging. Even macchariya is a kind of aversion to others' viewing with oneself.]
(*5) Thína and Middha are by nature opposed to adaptability. They lack the urge. As such they cannot arise in types of consciousness that are unprompted (asankharika) which are naturally keen and active. They appear only in types of prompted consciousness.
§ 9. Ek'únavísati dhammá jáyant'ekúnasatthisu
Tayo solasacittesu atthavisatiyam dayam
Pańá pakásitá sattacattálísavidhesu'pi
Sampayuttá catuddhv'evam sobhanesv'eva sobhaná.
(Beautiful Mental States)
§ 10. Issá-Macchera-Kukkucca - Viratí Karunádayo
Náná kadáci Máno ca - Thína-Middham tathá saha
Yathá vuttánusárena - sesá niyatayogino
Sangahań ca pavakkhámi - tesam'dáni yatháraham
Chattimsánuttare dhammá - pańcatimsa mahaggate
Atthatimsa'pi labbhanti - Kámávacarasobhane.
Sattavísatyapuńńamhi - dvádasáhetuke'ti ca
Yathásambhavayogena - pańcadhá tattha sangaho.
§ 11. Katham?
(b) Tathá Dutiyajjhánikacittesu Vitakkavajjá.
(c) Tatiyajjhánikacittesu Vitakka-Vicáravajjá.
(d) Catutthajjhánikacittesu Vitakka-Vicára-Pítivajjá.
Contents of Different Types of Consciousness
§ 10. Jealousy, Avarice, Worry, Abstinences (three), Compassion, Appreciative Joy, and Conceit arise separately and occasionally. So are Sloth and Torpor in combination.
The remaining factors, apart from those mentioned above (52 - 11 = 41), are fixed adjuncts. Now I shall speak of their combination accordingly.
Thirty six factors arise in the Supra mundane, thirty-five in the Sublime, thirty-eight in the Kámávacara Beautiful.
Twenty-seven in the Demeritorious, twelve in the Rootless. According to the way they arise their combination therein is fivefold.
Supra mundane Consciousness
§ 11. How?
(c) In the Third, (all those) excluding Initial Application and Sustained Application.
Thus in every way fivefold is the synthesis of mental factors arising in the eight types of Supra mundane consciousness according to the five Jhánas.
Respectively there are thirty-six, thirty-five, thirty-four, and thirty-three in the last two.
Thus in five ways they arise in the Supra mundane.
* Because their objects are living beings, while the lokuttara consciousness has Nibbána for its object.
** Vitakka is eliminated in the 2nd Jhána. The elimination of other factors in the remaining Jhánas should be similarly understood.
52. Aniyatayogi and Niyatayogi -
Of the 52 types of mental states eleven are called aniyatayogi - unfixed adjuncts. They arise in different kinds of consciousness separately because their particular objects differ. They may or may not arise in those types of consciousness to which they are allied. For instance, issá, macchariya, and kukkucca must arise in a consciousness connected with aversion. One of the three must arise at one particular moment. All the three do not occur simultaneously. Besides they are not bound to be present in such a consciousness. So are the three Abstinences, two Illimitables, Conceit, Sloth and Torpor.
The remaining 41 types are called niyatayogi - fixed adjuncts. They invariably arise in those types of consciousness allied to them.
53. Abstinences -
These three are collectively found only in the Supra mundane consciousness, as they constitute three of eight factors of the Noble Path. They cannot arise in the rúpávacara and arúpávacara, nor in the kámávacara vipáka and kriyá cittas. They deal with three forms of refraining from committing evil through word, deed, and livelihood. As such they arise separately only in the eight types of moral consciousness according to the abstinence from the particular evil.
These Abstinences appear in full force only in the lokuttara-cittas, because the corresponding evils are completely eradicated by them. In the kámávacara-kusala-cittas there is only a temporary inhibition of evil.
As kámávacara-vipáka-cittas are merely effects they cannot arise in them. Since kriyá-cittas are experienced only by Arahats, they do not arise in them. In the rúpávacara and arúpávacara planes they do not occur because the need for moral purification, the function of these abstinences, does not arise there.
54. Illimitables (Sublime Abodes)-
Of the four only two are mentioned here. The other two have already been dealt with in their respective places.
It should be noted that the objects of these tables are beings. Therefore they cannot arise in the Supra mundane consciousness which has for its object Nibbána. This does not mean that Arahats and other Aryans do not possess these virtues. They are not present only in the Path and Fruit consciousness.
They do not occur in the fifth Jhána as it is accompanied by upekkhá - neutral feeling. In the arúpa-cittas also they do not arise as they also are connected with upekkhá. In the eight kiriya cittas, which the Arahats experience, they arise because the Arahats also radiate thoughts of karuná and muditá towards all beings.
§ 12. Mahaggatesu pana
(a) tísu Pathamajjhánika-cittesu táva ańńasamáná terasa cetasiká Viratittayavajjitá dvávísati Sobhanacetasiká c'áti pańcatimsa dhammá sangaham gacchanti. Karuná - muditá pan'ettha paccekam'eva yojetabbá. Tathá
(b) Dutiyajjhánikacittesu Vitakkavajjá,
(c) Tatiyajjhánikacittesu Vitakka Vicáravajjá,
(d) Catutthajjhánikacittesu Vitakka-Vicára-Pítivajjá,
(e) Pańcamajjhánikacittesu pana pannarasasu Appamańńáyo na labbhantí'ti sabbathá'pi sattavisati - Mahaggata cittesu pańcakajjhánavasena pańcadhá'va sangaho hoti'ti.
§ 13. Pańcatimsa catuttimsa - tettimsa ca yathákkamam
Dvattimsa c'eva timseti-pańcadhá'va Mahaggate.
Here Compassion and Appreciative Joy should be combined separately.**
In all the twenty-seven types of Sublime consciousness the combination is fivefold according to the five kinds of Jhánas.
§ 13. There are respectively thirty-five, thirty-four, thirty-three, thirty-two, and thirty. Fivefold is the combination in the Sublime.
* They are found only in the lokuttara cittas and the kámávacara kusala cittas
** Because they do not arise simultaneously as their objects vary.
*** i.e., 3 Fifth Jhánas and 12 arúpa jhánas. The Jhána factors of the arúpa jhánas are identical. Illimitables do not occur in them because they are accompanied by upekkhá
Appamańńa Viratiyo pan'ettha pańca'pi paccekam'eva yojetabbá.
(ii) Tathá dutiyadvaye ńánavajjittá;
(iii) tatiyadvaye ńánasampayuttá pítivajjitá;
(iv) catutthadvaye ńánapítivajjitá. Te eva sangayhanti.
Kiriyacittesu'pi Virativajjitá. Tath'eva catusu'pi dukesu catudhá' va sangayhanti.
Tathá vipákesu ca Appamańńá-Virativajjitá. Te eva sangayhantí'ti sabbathá' pi catuvísati kámávacarasobha-nacittesu dukavasena dvádasadhá'va sangaho hotí'ti.
§ 15. Atthatimsa sattatimsa - dvayam chattimsakam subhe
Pańcatimsa catuttimsa - dvayam tettimsakam kriye
Tettimsa páke dvattimsa - dvayekatimsa karm bhave
Sahetukámávacara - puńńapákakriyá mane
§ 16. Na vijjant'ettha virati - kriyásu ca mahaggate
Anuttare appamańńá - kámapáke dvayam tathá
Anuttare jhánadhammá - appamańńá ca majjhime
virati ńána-píti ca - parittesu visesaká.
Sense-Sphere Beautiful Consciousness
In the Functional consciousness the three Abstinences are excluded. (*4) Likewise in the four couplets they are combined in four ways.
Similarly in the Resultant consciousness they all arise except the Illimitables and the Abstinences. (*5)
Thus in all the twenty-four types of Sense-sphere Beautiful types of consciousness the combination is twelve-fold according to pairs.
§ 16. Herein the Abstinences are not present in the Functional and Sublime consciousness.(*7) So are Illimitables in the Supramundane and the two Illimitables and Abstinences) in the Sense-Resultants. (Note 54)
In the Highest the Jhána factors are distinctive (*8); in the Middle (rúpávacara and arúpávacara), the Illimitables (and Jhána factors *9); in the Small (kámávacara), the Abstinences, Wisdom and Joy.
(*1) i.e., Somanassasahagatanápasampayutta asankhárika and sasankhárika citta - Prompted and unprompted consciousness, accompanied by pleasure, and associated with wisdom.
(*2) Because they are not fixed adjuncts. They arise at different moments of conscious experience.
(*3) Being accompanied by upekkhá.
(*4) Because the Arahats have completely eradicated the Abstinences.
(*5) Illimitables do not arise because they have limitless beings as the objects, while the Resultants are restricted to lesser objects. The Abstinences are absolutely moral. Hence they do not arise in a resultant consciousness. In the Supramundane Fruit consciousness they however arise because it is like a reflection of the Path consciousness.
(*6) i.e., thirty-seven in each of the second and third couplets.
(*7) i.e. in the rúpávacara arúpávacara planes. Because no occasion arises for such evil to spring up.
(*8) The supramundane consciousness, when classified according to five Jhánas, differs with respect to Jhána factors.
(*9) Ca in the text includes Jhána factors.
(*10) Morals differ from Resultants and Functionals on account of Abstinences. Morals and Functionals differ from Resultants on account of Illimitables. Respective couplets differ on account of Wisdom and Joy.
§ 18. Ekúnavísatthárasa - vísekavísa vísati
Dvávísa pannarase'ti - sattadhá kusale thitá
Sádháraná ca cattáro - samáná ca dasá pare.
Cuddasete pavuccanti - sabbákusalayogino.
Thus in all the twelve types of immoral consciousness synthesis becomes sevenfold when reckoned according to their different combinations.(*9)
§ 18. Nineteen, eighteen, twenty, twenty-one, twenty, twenty-two, fifteen, - thus they stand in seven ways in the immoral consciousness.
Those fourteen mental states - namely, the four immoral universals, and ten unmorals,(*10) are said to be associated with all the immoral types of consciousness.
(*1) i.e., Somanassa sakagata ditthigata sampayutta asankhárika citta - Unprompted consciousness, accompanied by pleasure, connected with misbelief.
(*2) i.e., the unprompted consciousness not connected with misbelief. Conceit and misbelief do not coexist.
(*3) i.e.. the unprompted consciousness accompanied by upekkhá. Joy does not coexist with indifference.
(*4) Joy does not coexist with aversion and grief.
(*5) Being unfixed mental adjuncts (aniyatayogino). Their objects differ and they arise severally.
(*6) They are the four types of prompted consciousness rooted in attachment and the one rooted in aversion. Sloth and torpor are present only in the immoral prompted consciousness.
(*7) There is no chanda, the will-to-do, as restlessness is predominant here.
(*8) Adhimokkha, the mental factor that dominates in deciding cannot exist in a perplexed mind.
(*9) (i) 1st and 2nd asankhárika citta = 19; (ii) 3rd and 4th asankhárika citta = 18; (iii) 5th asankhárika citta = 20; (iv) 1st and 2nd sasanhhárika citta = 21; (v) 3rd and 4th sasankhárika citta = 20; (vi) 5th sasankhárika citta = 22; (vii) moha citta = 15. Thus they divide themselves into seven classes according to numbering.
(*10) i.e., excluding chanda, píti, and adhimokha from the 13 ańńasamánas.
§ 20. Dvádasekádasa dasa satta cá'ti catubbidho
Atthárasáhetukesu cittuppádesu sangaho.
Ahetukesu sabbattha satta sesá yatháraham
Iti vitthárato vuttá tettimsavidha sangaho.
Ittham cittáviyuttánam sampayogań ca sangaham
Ńatvá bhedam yatháyogam cittena samamuddise'ti
Thus in all the eighteen types of rootless consciousness the mental states, numerically considered, constitute four groups.
§ 20. Twelve , eleven , ten, seven - thus their grouping with respect to the eighteen rootless types of consciousness is fourfold.
In all the rootless the seven (Universals) occur. The rest (Particulars) arise accordingly. Thus in detail the groupings are told in thirty-three ways.(*7)
Understanding thus the combinations and synthesis of the mental adjuncts, let one explain their union with the consciousness accordingly.(*8)
(*1) In the consciousness connected with laughter there is no wish-to-do, See Ch. 1, p.31.
(*2) It is the manodváravajjana-mind-door consciousness-that assumes the name votthapana - Determining.
(*3) Although santírana means investigating, it is a passive resultant consciousness. It lacks both will and effort.
(*4) Manodhátu - lit., the mere faculty of apprehension (mananamatta' meva dhátu). It comprises the pancadvárávajjana - sense-door consciousness, and the two sampaticchanas - recipient consciousness. The ten types of sense-consciousness are called dvipańca vińńánadhátu. The remaining seventy-six types of consciousness are termed manovińńánadhátu, as they excel others in apprehension.
Both sampaticchanas are accompanied by upekkhá which does not coexist with píti. Like the santírana these two are resultants and are passive. Therefore they lack both effort and will. In the pancadvárávajjana, too, as in manodvárávajjana effort and will are lacking.
(*5) The two santíranas accompanied by upekkhá - both moral and immoral resultants are known as the ahetuka patisandhi yugala the pair of rootless relinking types of consciousness. Conception in woeful states is obtained by the akusala ahetuka santírana, and amongst human beings as congenitally blind, deaf, etc., by the kusata ahetuka santírana. This pair is also accompanied by upekkhá.
(*6) They are mere passive types of resultant consciousness.
(*7) Namely, i. 5 in anuttara; ii. 5 in mahaggata; iii. 12 in kámávacara; iv. 7 in akusala; v. 4 in ahetuka; = 33.
(*8) In this chapter are explained in what types of consciousness the respective mental states are present and what types of mental states occur in each type of consciousness.
The author concludes the chapter advising the readers to explain the union of these mental states with each consciousness accordingly as, for example, - Universals are eighty-ninefold beeause they are present in all the types of consciousness, phassa of the Particulars is fifty-fivefold because it arises in fifty-five types of consciousness, etc.