Appendix 4
Appendix to Chapter 9

     The cittas which are accompanied by viriya are: all akusala cittas and all sobhana cittas, which include sobhana cittas of the sense-sphere, rupavacara cittas, arupavacara cittas and lokuttara cittas. Moreover, out of the eighteen types of ahetuka cittas there are two types which are accompanied by viriya: the mano-dvaravajjana-citta which in the sense-door process performs the function of determining the object (votthapana) and in the mind-door process the function of adverting to the object, and the hasituppada-citta which causes smiling in the case of arahats. The other sixteen types of ahetuka cittas are not accompanied by viriya. Thus, 16 types of citta out of 89 cittas are not accompanied by viriya. Altogether there are 73 types of citta accompanied by viriya.

     The patisandhi-citta, the bhavanga-citta and the cuti-citta are not accompanied by viriya if their functions are performed by santirana-citta (two types, one kusala vipaka and one akusala vipaka)1. If their functions are performed by maha-vipakacitta
they are accompanied by viriya.

     Summarizing the cittas which are accompanied by viriya, they are

12  akusala cittas
2   ahetuka cittas
8  maha-kusala cittas
8  maha-vipakacittas
8  maha-kiriyacittas
5  rupavacara kusala cittas
5  rupavacara vipakacittas
5   rupavacara kiriyacittas
4  arupavacara kusalacittas
4  arupavacara vipakacittas
4  arupavacara kiriyacittas
8 lokuttaracittas
-----altogether 73

     When lokuttara cittas accompanied by the jhana-factors of the different stages of jhana are taken into account, there are forty lokuttara cittas instead of eight; thus, in that case there ate hundred-and-five cittas accompanied by viriya.

1 Abhidhamma in Daily Life, Chapter 11