which accompany the different cittas:
bodily feeling (sukha) arises with only one type of citta: the
body-consciousness (kaya-vinnana) which is kusala vipaka. This kind of
kaya-vinnana experiences a pleasant tangible object.
feeling (dukkha) arises with only one type of citta: the kaya-vinnana
which is akusala vipaka. This kind of kaya-vinnana experiences an unpleasant
(somanassa) arises with cittas of the four jatis but not with every citta.
As regards akusala cittas accompanied by somanassa, four of the eight types
of lobha-mula-citta are accompanied by somanassa. The other types of akusala
citta are not accompanied by somanassa.
As regards ahetuka
cittas (cittas without roots, hetus), accompanied by somanassa, one
type of santirana-citta (investigating consciousness) which is ahetuka
kusala vipakacitta, and which investigates an extraordinarily pleasant
object, is accompanied by somanassa. One type of santirana-citta which
is ahetuka kusala vipakacitta and which investigates a pleasant but not
extraordinarily pleasant object, is accompanied by upekkha. The santirana-citta
which is akusala vipakacitta is also accompanied by upekkha. Thus, only
one of the three types of santirana-citta is accompanied by somanassa (1
Abhidhamma in Daily Life Chapter 9).
kiriyacitta which is the hasituppada-citta producing
the smile of an arahat
(2 Ibidem Chapter 9) is accompanied by somanassa.
Of the kamavacara
sobhana cittas (3 Ibidem Chapter 19. Kamavacara-sobhana cittas, beautiful
cittas of the sense-sphere are: eight types of maha-kusala cittas, eight
types of maha-vipakacittas and eight types of maha-kiriyacittas [inoperative,
neither cause nor result] which are cittas of the arahat.) (beautiful cittas
of the sense-
Sphere) four types
of maha-kusala cittas, four types of maha-
vipakacittas and four
types of maha-kiriyacittas are accompanied
of patisandhi (rebirth), bhavanga (life-continuum) and cuti (dying) can
be performed by maha-vipakacittas (1 lbidem Chapter 19). In that case they
are the result of kamma performed by maha-kusala cittas. Maha-vipakacittas
can be accompanied by somanassa depending on the kamma which produces them.
Those who are born with somanassa have bhavanga-cittas accompanied by somanassa
throughout life.( 2 The bhavanga-citta is the same type of citta as the
patttisandhi-citta.) As regards rupavacara cittas (rupa-jhanacittas)
(3 Ibidem Chapter 22.), those of the first, second, third and fourth stages
of jhana (of the fivefold system) are accompanied by somanassa. Thus, four
rupavacara kusala cittas, four rupavacara vipakacittas and four rupavacara
kiriyacittas are accompanied by somanassa. The rupavacara cittas of the
fifth stage of jhana are not accompanied by somanassa but by upekkha.
As regards arupavacara
cittas (arupa-jhanacittas), these are of the same type of citta as the
rupavacara cittas of the fifth stage of jhana, thus, they are not accompanied
by somanassa but by upekkha.
can be accompanied by somanassa or by upekkha, depending on conditions.
Lokuttara cittas can be classified as eight, since there are for each of
the four stages of enlightenment the magga-cittas (path-consciousness)
and its result, the phala-citta (fruition-consciousness).
People who have
accumulated great skill in jhana and who have also developed insight, can
attain enlightenment with lokuttara jhana-cittas. The lokuttara jhanacittas,
which experience nibbana, are accompanied by jhana-factors of different
the stages of jhana. When lokuttara jhanacittas are taken into account,
there are, instead of eight lokuttara cittas, forty lokuttara cittas (five
times eight, since there are five stages of jhana) (4 This is the reason
why cittas can be counted as eightynine or as hundred-and-twentyone, which
include lokuttara jhanacittas.). In the case of the lokuttara jhanacittas,
the accompanying feeling is in accordance with the accompanying jhana-factors.
In the fifth stage of jhana there is upekkha instead of somanassa, and
therefore eight lokuttara jhanacittas, accompanied by the jhana-factors
of the fifth stage, are not accompanied by somanassa but by upekkha. Thus,
of the forty lokuttara jhanacittas thirtytwo types are accompanied by somanassa.
The feeling which accompanies the phala-citta (fruition-consciousness,
the result of the magga-citta) is in each case the same type as the feeling
which accompanies the magga-citta.
Summarizing the cittas
accompanied by somanassa, they are:
12 kiriyavacara sobhana
12 rupavacara cittas
feeling, arises with the two types of dosa-mula-citta: one type is asankkha
(unprompted) and one type is sasanikharika (Prompted) (1 unprompted: arisen
without inducement, spontaneously; prompted: arisen because of inducement
either by oneself or by someone else.) Domanassa cannot arise with other
types of citta except these two.
feeling, can arise with citta of the four jatis but it does not arise with
every citta. Thus, upekkha can be kusala, akusala, vipaka and kiriya. Upekkha
can arise with kamavacara cittas (cittas of the sense.sphere), rupavacara
citta arupavacara arias and lokuttata atlas.
As regards upekkha which accompanies akusala cittas, four the eight types
of lobha-mula-citta are accompanied bv upekkha. Upekkha also accompanies
the two types of moha-mula-citta which are: moha-mula-citta accompanied
by vicikiccha (doubt) and moha- mula-citta accompanied by uddhacca (restlessness)
(2 Abhidhamma in Daily Life Chapter 7).
As regards ahetuka cittas, fourteen among the eighteen types are
accompanied by upekkha, namely: twelve ahetuka vipakacittas which
are: four pairs of dvi-pancavinnanas (the pair which is body-consciousness
is excepted), two types of sampaticchana-citta (receiving-consciousness),
and two among the three types of santirana (investigating-consciousness).
Only santrana-citta which invesdgates an extraordinaly pleasant object
is, as we have seen, accompanied by somanassa. The other two types, one
of which is kusala vipaka and one of which is akusala vipaka, are accompanied
by upekkha (1Santirana-citta can also perform the funcdon of rebirth. when
it is akusala vipaka, accompanied by upekkha, it can perform the function
of rebirth in woeful planes. When it is kusala vipaka, accompanied hy upekkha,
it can perform the function of rebirth of thos who are handicapped from
the first moment of life. The same type of citta which peform the function
of rebirth also peform the functions of bhavanga and cuti dying, in that
The are two types of ahetuka kiriyacittas which are accompanied by upekkha,
namely: the pancadvacavacittaa-citta (the five-sense-door-adverting-consciousness)
and the mano-dvaravajjana-citta (the mind-door-adverting-consciousness)
which performs, in the sense-door process, the function of determining
the object (votthapatta) (2Abhidhamma in Daily Life Chapter 9) and in the
mind-door process the function of adverting to the object through the mind-door.
Thus, there are fourteen types of ahetuka citta in all which are accompanied
As regards kamavacara sobhana cittas, four of the eight maha-kusala cittas,
four of the eight maha-vipakacittas and four of the eight maha-kiriyacittas
are accompanied by upekkha. Thus, twelve kamavacara sobhana cittas are
accompanied by upekkha.
As regards rupavacara cittas, only the tripavacara kusala citta, the tripavacara
vipaka-citta and the rupavacara kiriyacitta of the fifth stage of jhana
are accompanied by upekkha; thus, there are three rupavacara cittas accompanied
by upekkha. The arupavacara cittas are the same types of citta as the rupavacara
citta of the fifth stage of jhana; they all are accompanied by upekkha.
There are twelve arupavacara cittas, namely the arupavacara kusala citta,
the arupavacara vipakacitta and the arupavacara kiriyacitta of each of
the four stages of arupa-jhana. At the fourth stage of arrupa-jhana, the
'Sphere of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception', there is 'neither feeling
nor non-feeling', feeling is present 'in a subtle state as a residual formation'
50) (3Ahhidhamma in
Daily Life Chapter 22).
As regards lokutara cittas, they can, depending on conditions, be accompanied
by upekkha. When lokuttara jhana-ciittas are taken into account, the lokuttara
cittas accompanied by the jhana-factors of the fifth stage of jhana are
accompanied by upekkha, thus, there are eight types accompanied by upekkha.
Summarizing, the cittas accompanied by upekkha are the following :
altogether : 55 types
accompanied by upekkha
12 kamavacara sobhana
12 arupavacara cittas
8 lokuttara cittas