Selections for Translation

I. BuddheniyΠVatthu: Story of Buddheni

Jambud“pe kira pubbe pŒŹaliputtanagare sattŒs“ti-koŹi-nihita-dhanaµ ekaµ seŹŹhi-kulaµ ahosi. Tassa pana seŹŹhino ekŒ y'eva dh“tŒ ahosi - nŒmena Buddhen“ nŒma. Tassa satta-vassika-kŒle mŒtŒ-pitaro kŒlamakaµsu. Tasmiµ kule sabbaµ sŒpateyyaµ tassŒ y'eva ahosi.

SŒ kira abhirčpŒ pŒsŒdikŒ paramŒya vaööapokkharatŒya samannŒgatŒ devaccharŒ-paŹibhŒgŒ piyŒ ca ahosi manŒpŒ saddhŒ pasannŒ ratanattayamŒmikŒ paŹivasati. Tasmiµ pana nagare seŹŹhisenŒpati - uparŒjŒdayo taµ attano pŒdaparikattaµ kŒmayamŒnŒ manusse pesesuµ paööŒkŒrehi saddhiµ. SŒ taµ sutvŒ cintesi:- mayhaµ mŒtŒpitaro sabbaµ vibhavaµ pahŒya matŒ. MayŒ'pi tathŒ gantabbaµ. Kiµ me patikulena. Kevalaµ citta-vinŒsŒya bhavati. MayŒ pan'imaµ dhanaµ Buddha-sŒsane y'eva nidahituµ vaŹŹat“'ti cintesi. CintetvŒ ca pana tesaµ mayhaµ patikulena'ttho'ti paŹikkhipi.

SŒ tato paŹŹhŒya mahŒdŒnaµ pavattent“ samaöa-brŒhmaöe santappesi.

Ath'ŒparabhŒge eko assa-vŒöijako assa-vŒöijjŒya pubbant'Œparantaµ gacchanto Œgamma imasmiµ gehe nivŒsaµ gaöhi. Atha so vŒöijo taµ disvŒ dh“tu-sinehaµ patiŹŹhŒpetvŒ gandha-mŒlŒ - vatth - 'ŒlaŗkŒrŒd“hi tassŒ upakŒrako hutvŒ gamanakŒle - "Amma etesu assesu tava ruccanakaµ assaµ gaöhŒh“" ti Œha.

SŒ'pi asse oloketvŒ ekaµ sindhavapotakaµ disvŒ "etaµ me deh“' " ti Œha.

VŒöijo - "Amma eso sindhavapotako. AppamattŒ hutvŒ paŹijaggŒh“' " ti vatvŒ taµ paŹipŒdetvŒ agamŒsi.

SŒ'pi taµ paŹijaggamŒnŒ ŒkŒsa - gŒm“ - bhŒvaµ –atvŒ sammŒpaŹijaggant“ evaµ cintesi - pu––akaraöassa me sahŒyo laddho'ti agatapubbŒ ca me Bhagavato sakalaµ mŒrabalaµ vidhŒmetvŒ Buddhabhčtassa Jaya-mahŒ Bodhi-bhčmi. YannčnŒhaµ tattha gantvŒ Bhagavato JayamahŒ-bodhiµ vandeyyan'ti cintetvŒ bahč rajata-suvaööa-mŒlŒdayo kŒrŒpetvŒ ekadivasaµ assam' abhiruyha ŒkŒsena gantvŒ bodhi-mŒlake ŹhatvŒ - īgacchantu ayya suvaööamŒlŒ pčjetun'ti ugghosesi - ten'ettha:

Yato paŹŹhŒya'haµ Buddha - sŒsane suddha-mŒnasŒ
PasunnŒ tena saccena - mamanuggaha-buddhiyŒ

īgacchantu namassantu - bodhiµ pčjentu sŒdhukaµ
SoööamŒlŒhi Sambuddha - puttŒ ariyasŒvakŒ

SutvŒ taµ vacanaµ ayyŒ - bahč S“lavŒsino
īgamma nabhasŒ tattha - vandiµsu ca mahiµsu ca.

Tato-ppabhuti sŒ kumŒrikŒ Buddha-sŒsane at“'va pasannŒ niccameva assamabhiruyha ŒgantvŒ ariyehi saddhiµ MahŒbodhiµ suvaööamŒlŒbhi pčjetvŒ gacchati.

Atha PŒŹaliputta-nagar'opavane vanacarŒ tassa abhiöhaµ gacchantiyŒ ca ŒgacchantiyŒ ca rčpasampattiµ disvŒ ra––o kathesuµ. "ČahŒrŒja, evarčpŒ kumŒrikŒ assam'abhiruyha ŒgantvŒ nibandhaµ vanditvŒ gacchati. DevassŒnurčaµ aggamahesi bhavitun' " ti.

RŒjŒ taµ sutvŒ "Tena hi bhane gaöhatha naµ kumŒriµ Mama aggamahesiµ karom“" ti, purise payojesi.

Tena payuttŒ purisŒ Bodhi-pčjaµ katvŒ Œgacchantiµ gaöhŒmŒ'ti tattha nil“nŒ gahaöa-sajjŒ aŹŹhaµsu. TadŒ sŒ kumŒrikŒ assam'abhiruyha MahŒ-Bodhimaö¶aµ gantvŒ v“tarŒgehi saddhiµ pupphapčjaµ katvŒ vanditvŒ nivatti. Atha tesu eko Dhammarakkhitatthero nŒma tassŒ eva'mŒha: "Bhagini, tvaµ antarŒmagge corŒ gaöhitukŒmŒ ŹhitŒ. AsukhaŹŹhŒnaµ patvŒ appamattŒ s“ghaµ gacchŒ" ti.

SŒ pi gacchant“ taµ ŹhŒnaµ patvŒ corehi anubandhitŒ assassa paöhiyŒ sa––aµ datvŒ pakkami. CorŒ pacchato pacchato anubandhiµsu. Asso vegaµ janetvŒ ŒkŒsa'mullanghi. KumŒrikŒ vegaµ sandhŒretuµ asakkont“ assassa piŹŹhito parigilitvŒ patant“ - mayŒ katčpakŒraµ sara puttŒti Œha. So patantiµ disvŒ vegena gantvŒ piŹŹhiyaµ nis“dŒpetvŒ ŒkŒsato netvŒ sakaŹŹhŒne y'eva patiŹŹhŒpesi. TasmŒ

TiracchŒnagatŒ p'evaµ - sarantŒ upakŒrakaµ
Na jahant“'ti mantvŒna - kata––č hontu pŒnino.

Tato sŒ kumŒrikŒ sattŒs“tikoŹi - dhanaµ BuddhasŒsane y'eva vapitvŒ yŒvaj“vaµ s“laµ rakkhitvŒ tato cutŒ suttappabuddho viya devaloke nibbatti.

AtitaruöavayŒ bho mŒtugŒmŒ'pi evaµ
Vividhakusalakammaµ katvŒ saggaµ vajanti
Kusalaphalamahantaµ ma––amŒnŒ bhavantŒ
Bhavatha katha'mupekkŒ dŒnamŒnŒdikamme.

II. PŒn“yadinnassa Vatthu: Story of the Giver of Water

Jambud“pe a––atarasmiµ janapade kir'eko manusso raŹŹhato raŹŹhaµ janapadato janapadaµ vicaranto anukkamena CandabhŒgŒ-nad“t“raµ patvŒ nŒvaµ abhiruhitvŒ parat“raµ gacchati. Ath'Œparaµ gabbhinitth“ tŒya eva'nŒvŒya gacchati. Atha nŒvŒ gaŗgŒ-majjhŒ-patta-kŒle tassa kammaja vŒtŒ caliµsu. Tato sŒ vijŒyitu'masakkont“ k“lantŒ pŒn“yaµ me detha pipŒsitŒ'mh“' ti manusse yŒci. Te tassŒ vacanaµ asuöantŒ viya pŒn“yaµ n'Œdaµsu. Atha so jŒnapadiko tassa karuöŒyanto pŒn“yaµ gahetvŒ mukhe Œsi–ci. Tasmiµ khaöe sŒ laddhŒssŒsŒ sukhena dŒrakaµ vijŒyi. Atha te t“raµ patvŒ katipaya-divasena attano attano ŹhŒnaµ pŒpuöiµsu. Ath'ŒparabhŒge so jŒnapadiko a––atara-kiccaµ paŹicca tassŒ itthiyŒ vasana-gharaµ patvŒ tattha tattha Œhiö¶anto nivŒsanaŹŹŒnaµ alabhitvŒ nagaradvŒre sŒlaµ gantvŒ tattha nipajji.

Tasmiµ y'eva divase corŒ nagaraµ pavisitvŒ rŒjagehe sandhiµ chinditvŒ dhanasŒraµ gahetvŒ gacchantŒ rŒjapurisehi anubaddhŒ gantvŒ tŒ y'eva sŒlŒya cha¶¶etvŒ palŒyiµsu. Atha rŒjapurisŒ ŒgantvŒ taµ jŒnapadikaµ disvŒ - ayaµ coro'ti gahetvŒ pacchŒbŒhaµ gŒĀhaµ bandhitvŒ puna-divase ra––o dassesuµ.

Ra––Œ "KasmŒ bhaöe, corakamma'kŒs“" ti pucchito

"N'Œhaµ, deva, coro, Œgantuko'mhi" ti vutte, rŒjŒ core pariyesitvŒ alabhanto ayam'eva coro imaµ mŒrethŒ'ti ŒnŒpesi.

RŒjapurisehi taµ gŒĀhaµ bandhitvŒ ŒghŒtaŹŹhŒnaµ nette sŒ itth“ taµ tatha n“yamŒnaµ disvŒ sa–jŒnitvŒ kampamŒna hadayŒ muhuttena ra––o santikaµ gantvŒ vanditvŒ, "deva eso na coro Œgantuko, muccath'etaµ, devŒ'ti" 'Œha. RŒjŒ tssŒ kathaµ asaddhahanto yajjetaµ mocetum'icchasi tassagghanakaµ dhanaµ datvŒ mu–cŒpeh“'ti.

SŒ "sŒmi mama gehe dhanaµ n'atthi. Api ca me satta-puttehi saddhiµ maµ dŒsiµ karohi. Etaµ mu–ca devŒ" ti Œha.

III. Duggatassa DŒnaµ: A Pauper's Charity

Ahosiµ duggato pubbe - BŒrŒöasi-puruttame
DŒnaµ denti narŒ tattha - nimantetvŒna bhikkhavo

J“vanto bhatiyŒ so'haµ - dŒnaµ dente mahŒjane
TuŹŹhahaŹŹhe pamudite - evaµ cintes'ahaµ tadŒ

Samuppaööa-vatthŒlaŗkŒrŒ - dŒnaµ dent“ ime janŒ
Parattha'pi pahaŹŹhŒ'va - sampattim'anubhonti te

Buddhu'ppŒdo ayaµ dŒni - dhammo loke pavattati
Sus“lŒ'dŒni vattanti - dakkhiöeyyŒ jinorasŒ

AvaŹŹhito'va saµsŒro - apŒyŒ khalu pčritŒ
KalyŒöa-vimukhŒ sattŒ - kŒmaµ gacchanti duggatiµ

IdŒni dukkhito hutvŒ - j“vŒmi kasiren'ahaµ
DaĀiddo kapaöo d“no - appabhogo anŒĀiyo

IdŒni b“jaµ ropemi - sukhette sŒdhu-sammate
App'eva nŒma ten'Œhaµ - parattha sukhito siyŒ

Iti cintiya bhikkhitvŒ - bhatiµ katvŒna 'nekadhŒ
Maö¶apaµ tattha kŒretvŒ - nimantetvŒna bhikkhavo

īyŒsena adŒs 'ahaµ - pŒyŒsaµ amatŒ yaso
Tena kammavipŒkena - devaloke manorame

JŒto'mhi dibbakŒmehi - modamŒno anekadhŒ
D“ghŒyuko vaööavanto - tejas“'ca ahos'ahaµ.

IV. SumanŒdeviyŒ Vatthu: Story of SumanŒ Devi

SŒvatthiyaµ hi devasikaµ AnŒthapiö¶ikassa gehe dve Bhikkhu-sahassŒni bhu–janti; tathŒ VisŒkhŒya mahŒupŒsikŒya. SŒvatthiya– ca yo yo dŒnaµ dŒtukŒmo hoti so so tesaµ ubhiönaµ okŒsaµ labhitvŒ'va karonti. Kiµ kŒraöŒ? TumhŒkaµ dŒnaggaµ AnŒthapiö¶iko vŒ VisŒkhŒ vŒ ŒgatŒ'ti pucchitvŒ n'ŒgatŒ'ti vutte satasahassaµ vissajjetvŒ katadŒnam'pi kiµ dŒnaµ nŒm'etanti garahanti.

Ubho'pi te Bhikkhusaŗghassa ruci– ca anucchavikakiccŒni ca ativiya jŒnanti. Tesu vicŒrentesu bhikkhč cittarčpaµ bhu–janti. TasmŒ sabbe dŒnaµ dŒtukŒmŒ te gahetvŒ'va gacchanti. Iti te attano ghare bhikkhč parivisituµ na labhanti.

Tato VisŒkhŒ "ko nu kho mama ŹhŒne ŹhatvŒ bhikkhusaŗghaµ parivisissat“" ti upadhŒrent“ puttassa dh“taraµ disvŒ taµ attano ŹhŒne Źhapesi. SŒ tassŒ nivesane bhikkhusaŗghaµ parivisati. AnŒthapiö¶iko'pi MahŒsubhaddaµ nŒma jeŹŹhadh“taraµ Źhapesi. SŒ bhikkhčnaµ veyyŒvaccaµ karont“ dhammaµ suöant“ sotŒpannŒ hutvŒ patikulaµ agamŒsi. Tato Cullasubhaddaµ Źhapesi. SŒ'pi tatth'eva karont“ sotŒpannŒ hutvŒ patikulaµ gatŒ. Atha SumanŒdeviµ nŒma kaöiŹŹhadh“taraµ Źhapesi. SŒ pana SakadŒgŒmiphalaµ patvŒ kumŒrikŒ'va hutvŒ tathŒrčpena aphŒsukhena ŒturŒ ŒhŒrupacchedaµ katvŒ pitaraµ daŹŹhukŒmŒ hutvŒ pakkosŒpesi. So ekasmiµ dŒnagge tassa sŒsanaµ sutvŒ'va ŒgantvŒ - "Kiµ amma Sumane'?" ti Œha. SŒ'pi naµ Œha - "Kiµ tŒta kiöiŹŹhabhŒtikŒ"ti.

"Vippalapasi, amma?"

"Na vippalapŒmi, kaöiŹŹhabhŒtikŒ" ti.

"BhŒyasi, ammŒ" ti.

"Na bhŒyŒmi, kaöiŹŹhabhŒtikŒ" ti.

Ettakaµ vatvŒ y'eva pana sŒ kŒlamakŒsi.

So SotŒpanno'pi samŒno seŹŹhidh“tari uppannasokaµ adhivŒsetuµ asakkonto Dh“tu sar“rakiccaµ kŒretvŒ rodanto Satthusantikaµ gantvŒ "Kiµ gahapati dukkh“ dummano assumukho rudamŒno upagato's“" ti? vutte "Dh“tŒ me bhante SumanŒdevi kŒlakatŒ" ti Œha.

"Atha kasmŒ socasi? Nanu sabbesaµ ekaŗsikaµ maraöanti."

"JŒnŒm'etaµ bhante. EvarčpŒ pana me hirottappasampannŒ dh“tŒ sŒ maraöakŒle satiµ paccupaŹŹhŒpetuµ asakkont“ vippalamŒnŒ matŒ'ti me anappakaµ domanassaµ uppajjati" ti.

"Kiµ pana tayŒ kathitaµ mahŒseŹŹhi?"

"Ahaµ taµ bhante 'Amma Sumane' 'ti Œmantesiµ. Atha naµ Œha 'Kiµ tŒta kaöiŹŹhabhŒtikŒ'ti. Tato 'vippalpasi ammŒ' 'ti? 'Na vippalapŒm“'ti kaöiŹŹhabhŒtikŒ' 'ti. 'BhŒyasi ammŒ' 'ti? 'Na bhŒyŒm“'ti kaöiŹŹabhŒtikŒ' 'ti. Ettakaµ vatvŒ kŒlamŒkas“" ti.

Atha naµ BhagavŒ Œha. "Na te mahŒseŹŹhi dh“tŒ vippalap“" ti.

"Atha kasmŒ evam'ŒhŒ?" ti

KaöiŹŹhattŒ y'eva. Dh“tŒ hi te gahapati maggaphalehi tayŒ mahallikŒ. Tvaµ hi SotŒpanno. Dh“tŒ pana te SakadŒgŒmini. SŒ maggaphalehi mahallikattŒ evam'ŒhŒ" ti.

"Evaµ bhante!"

"Evaµn gahapati!"

"IdŒni kuhiµ nibbattŒ, bhante?"

Tusitabhavane gahapat“'ti vutte bhante mama dh“tŒ idhŒ –ŒtakŒnaµ antare nandamŒnŒ, vicaritvŒ ito gantvŒ'pi nandanaŹŹhŒne y'eva nibbattŒ."

Atha naµ satthŒ "īma gahapati appamattŒ nŒma gahaŹŹhŒ vŒ pabbajitŒ vŒ idha loke ca paraloke ca nandanti y'evŒ"ti vatvŒ imaµ gŒtham'Œha.

Idha nandati pecca nandati - katapu––o ubhayattha nandati
Pu––aµ me katan ti nandati - bh“yyo nandati suggatiµ gato.

V. Selections from Dhammapada

Na hi verena verŒni - sammant“'dha kudŒcanaµ
Averena ca sammanti - esa dhammo sanantano.

YathŒ agŒraµ ducchannaµ - vuŹŹhi samativijjhati
Evaµ abhŒvitaµ cittaµ - rŒgo samativijjhati.

YathŒ'gŒraµ succhannaµ - vuŹŹhi na samativijjhati
Evaµ subhŒvitaµ cittaµ - rŒgo na samativijjhati.

Idha socati pecca socati - pŒpakŒr“ ubhayattha socati
So socati so viha––ati - disvŒ kamma-kiliŹŹha'mattano.

Idha modati pecca modati - katapu––o ubhayattha modati
So modati so pamodati - disvΠkamma-visuddhi'mattano.

Idha tappati pecca tappati - pŒpakŒr“ ubhayattha tappati
PŒpaµ me katan'ti tappati - bh“yo tappati duggatiµ gato.

Idha nandati pecca nandati - katapu––o ubhayattha nandati
Pu––aµ me katan'ti nandati - bh“yo nandati suggatiµ gato.

AppamŒdo amatapadaµ - pamŒdo maccuno padaµ
AppamattŒ na m“yanti - ye pamattŒ yathŒ matŒ.

AppamŒdena maghavŒ - devŒnaµ seŹŹhataµ gato
AppamŒdaµ pasaŗsanti - pamŒdo garahito sadŒ.

Aciraµ vata'yaµ kŒyo - paŹhaviµ adhisessati
Chuddho apeta-vi––Œöo - niratthaµ'va kaĀiŗgaraµ.

YathŒ'pi bhamaro pupphaµ - vaööagandhaµ aheŹhayaµ
PaĀeti rasa'mŒdŒya - evaµ gŒme mun“ care.

Na paresaµ vilomŒni - na paresaµ kat'Œkataµ
Attano'va avekkheyya - katŒni akatŒni ca.

YathŒ'pi puppharŒsimhŒ - kayirŒ mŒlŒguöe bahč
Evaµ jŒtena maccena - kattabbaµ kusalaµ bahuµ.

Madhč'va ma––at“ bŒlo - yŒva pŒpaµ na paccati
YadŒ ca paccati pŒpaµ - atha bŒlo dukkhaµ nigacchati.

Selo yathŒ ekaghano - vŒtena na sam“rati
Evaµ nindŒ-pasaµsŒsu - na sami–janti paö¶itŒ.

Na attahetu na parassa hetu - na putta'micche na dhanaµ na raŹŹhaµ
Na iccheyya adhammena samiddhi'mattano - sa s“lavŒ pa––avŒ dhammiko siyŒ.

Yo sahassaµ sahassena - saŗgŒme mŒnuse jine
Ekaµ ca jeyya attŒnaµ - save saŗgŒmaj'uttamo.

Sabbe tasanti daö¶assa - sabbe bhŒyanti maccuno
AttŒnaµ upamaµ katvŒ - na haöeyya na ghŒtaye.

Sabbe tasanti daö¶assa - sabbesaµ j“vitaµ piyaµ
AttŒnaµ upamaµ katvŒ na haöeyya na ghŒtaye.

Dhammaµ care sucaritaµ - na taµ duccaritaµ care
DhammacŒr“ sukhaµ seti - asmiµ loke paramhi ca.

Kiccho manussa paŹilŒbho - kicchaµ macchŒna j“vitaµ
Kicchaµ saddhammasavaöaµ - kiccho buddhŒnaµ uppŒdo.

SabbapŒpassa akaraöaµ - kusalassa upasampadŒ
Sacitta pariyodapanaµ - etaµ BuddhŒna sŒsanaµ.

Yo ca Buddha– ca dhamma– ca - saŗgha– ca saraöaµ gato
CattŒri ariya-saccŒni - samma'ppa––Œya passati.

Dukkhaµ dukkhasamuppŒdaµ - dukkhassa ca atikkamaµ
Ariya–caŹŹhaŗgikaµ maggaµ - dukkhčpasamagŒminaµ.

Etaµ kho saraöaµ khemaµ - etaµ saraöa'muttamaµ
Etaµ saraöa'mŒgamma - sabbadukkhŒ pamuccati.

Na c'Œhu na ca bhavissati - na cetarahi vijjati
Ekantaµ nindito poso - ekantaµ vŒ pasaµsito.

Na tena paöito hoti - yŒvatŒ bahu bhŒsati
Khem“ avero abhayo - paöito'ti pavuccati.

Na tŒvatŒ dhammadharo - yŒvatŒ bahu bhŒsati
Yo ca appam'pi sutvŒna - dhammaµ kŒyena passati
Save dhammadharo hoti - yo dhammaµ na'ppamajjati.

Akataµ dukkataµ seyyo - pacchŒ tapati dukkataµ
Kata– ca sukataµ seyyo - yaµ katvŒ nŒnutappati.

Sukhaµ yŒva jarŒ s“laµ - sukhŒ saddhŒ patiŹŹhitŒ
Sukho pa––Œya paŹilŒbho - pŒpŒnaµ akaraöaµ sukhaµ.

SabbadŒnaµ dhammadŒnaµ jinŒti - sabbaµ rasaµ dhammarasaµ jinŒti
Sabbaµ ratiµ dhammaratiµ jinŒti - taöhakkhayo sabba dukkhaµ jinŒti.

CakkhunŒ saµvaro sŒdhu - sŒdhu sotena saµvaro
GhŒöena saµvaro sŒdhu - sŒdhu jivhŒya saµvaro.

KŒyena saµvaro sŒdhu - sŒdhu vŒcŒya saµvaro
ManasŒ saµvaro sŒdhu - sŒdhu sabbattha saµvaro
Sabbattha saµvuto bhikkhu - sabbadukkhŒ pamuccati.

DhammŒrŒmo dhammarato - dhammaµ anuvicintayaµ
Dhammaµ anussaraµ bhikkhu - saddhammŒ na parihŒyati.

Yassa kŒyena vŒcŒya - manasŒ n'atthi dukkataµ
Saµvutaµ t“hi ŹhŒnehi - tam'ahaµ brčmi brŒhmaöaµ.

VI.

Mano pubbaŗgamŒ dhammŒ - mano seŹŹhŒ manomayŒ
ManasŒ ce paduŹŹhena - bhŒsati vŒ karoti vŒ
Tato naµ dukkham'anveti - cakkaµ'va vahato padaµ.

Mano pubbaŗgamŒ dhammŒ - manoseŹŹhŒ manomayŒ
ManasŒ ce pasannena - bhŒsati vŒ karoti vŒ
Tato naµ sukham'anveti - chŒyŒ'va anapŒyin“.

In prose form :-
DhammŒ mano pubbaŗgamŒ (honti), mano seŹŹhŒ (honti), manomayŒ (honti), (Yo) ce paduŹŹhena manasŒ bhŒsati vŒ karoti vŒ, tato dukkhaµ naµ anveti cakkaµ vahato padaµ iva.

DhammŒ mano pubbaŗgamŒ (honti), mano seŹŹhŒ (honti), manomayŒ (honti), (Yo) ce psannena manasŒ bhŒsati vŒ karoti vŒ, tato sukhaµ naµ anveti anapŒyin“ chŒyŒ iva.

DhammŒ-dhara, to hold or support. suffix mma. states or conditions.

PubbaŗgamŒ - pubba + µ + gamŒ = going before.

ManoseŹŹhŒ - mana + seŹŹha. - When words of the mano group are compounded with another word, the final vowel is changed into 'o'.

ManomayΠ- This is a Nominal Derivative (Taddihita) formed from mana and suffix 'maya' which means made of.

PaduŹŹhena - pa + dusa, to defile, pollute. This is the Perfect Participle of 'padusa'. Here the suffix 'ta' is changed into 'ŹŹha'. Comp. diŹŹha from disa, to see; naŹŹha from nasa, to perish; daŹŹha from daŗsa, to sting; iŹŹha from isu, to wish.

BhŒsati - Present tense of bhŒsa, to speak.

Karoti - Present tense of kara, to do.

Anveti - anu + eti The present tense of 'i'', to go. Here 'u' is changed into 'v'.

Cakkaµ'va Cakkaµ + iva, This is a Sandhi formed by dropping the following vowel.

Vahato - The Genitive case of 'vahanta', from 'vaha', to carry.

Pasannena - The Perfect Participle of 'pa', + 'sada', to be pleased. Here the suffix 'ta' is changed into 'nna'. Comp. 'bhinna', from bhidi, to break; chinna from chidi, to cut; channa from chada, to cover.

AnapŒyin“ - Na + apŒyin“. Here na is changed into 'an'. ApŒyin“ is formed from apa + aya, to go.